Beetles in Dried Bamboo

Bamboo garden stakes from Asia have been found to be infested with longhorned beetles.

IDENTITY
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Name: Beetles in Dried Bamboo
Taxonomic Position:
Plantae: Anthophyta: Monocotyledoneae: Gramineae*
Common Names: dried bamboo stakes

Significance:
Dried bamboo from Asia, sold as garden stakes for agriculture, nursery and home use, have been found to be infested with at least 4 longhorned beetle species and 1 moth.

Issues of Concern: The importation of bamboo stakes represents an import pathway for insect introduction which may be regulated differently from solid wood packing materials. The long horned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Chlorophorus annularis, Stromatium barbatum, Purpuricenus spp. including spectabilis and temminckii, and Clytini sp. have been observed as larvae in, or adults emerging from, dried imported Bambusa in the U.S. this year. Although there is minimal host range literature available for these species or groups, C. annularis has been reported from grapes and citrus, and therefore warrants concern as a significant pest. Adults of some long-horned beetles have been reported to emerge several years after the importation of dried bamboo hosts.

In addition to long-horned beetles, moth larvae (Oecophoridae sp.) were found on stakes of Chinese origin.

Hosts: All "hollow" bamboo (hollow internodal areas) is suspect; the majority of infested bamboo is apparently Bambusa vulgaris.


Quarantines: All five of the insects or groups mentioned under "Issues of Concern" are of quarantine significance to the U.S., and potentially all of North America.

Detection Strategies
These pests may leave no visible signs on bamboo, so visual inspections are not always effective. The following, however, is a National Plant Board recommendation:

"Plant regulatory officials, nurseries and other cooperators are urged to inspect/survey for these pests and report their finding to the State Plant Regulatory official in their State. USDA APHIS PPQ officers will be inspecting shipments of bamboo stakes as they enter the various ports of entry throughout the U.S. State plant regulatory agencies are urged to inspect bamboo stakes found in nurseries, garden centers and other interior sites. State inspectors are encouraged to conduct a 2% visual sampling of the stakes found at a site, up to 60 stakes per lot. If there is an indication that there may be life forms of the beetles present (exit holes, frass, visible damage, etc.), a more intensive inspection should be conducted, including the cutting open of suspect poles to look for damage or beetle life forms. The larvae, when present, are located in the cortex, just below the epidermis. Larvae are not usually found in the inner hollow area of the pole. There isn't always an outside entry/exit hole that is visible, but if the pole is dropped on a piece of white paper, or the like, some frass might be observed falling out of a hard-to-detect hole. To take a closer look on a suspect pole, cut open the pole or peel back the epidermis to expose the cortex area in an effort to find the galleries or larva."

Mandatory fumigation treatments are currently being considered for high-risk bamboo imports.

Comments:
* Placed in the family Bambusaceae by some workers

OTHER INFORMATION:
Useful Links:
U.S. National Plant Board Pest Alert

Related Documents:
Chlorophorus annularis Data Sheet    Colcerca800.pdf
Purpuricenus spp. Data Sheet    purpuricenus data sheet.pdf

Warning: The information in this archived item was not confirmed with the appropriate National Plant Protection Organization and is provided solely for informational purposes. Please use this information with caution.