Citrus brown mite (or similar species) threatening North American citrus production
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Name: Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein)
Animalia: Arthropoda: Arachnida: Acari: Tetranychidae
Common Names: Oriental red mite, Citrus brown mite (Engl.), acaro rojo oriental (Sp.), tétranique rouge asiatique (Fr.)
E. orientalis is generally regarded as an important pest of citrus. Feeding generally starts on the upper side of the leaf along the midrib and then moves to the lateral veins. As a result, leaves become chlorotic and yellow streaks develop along the veins. Heavy infestations or dry conditions may cause leaf fall, die-back of branches and defoliation.
Issues of Concern: Because of its wide distribution range, high reproductive potential and ability to cause severe economic damage, it is a pest of concern to the North American citrus industry. On at least one occasion (January 2001), individuals of this (or a similar) species were detected on palm trees and croton in Florida.
Hosts: Primary hosts: Citrus, Codiaeum variegatum (croton), Ficus carica (fig), Gossypium (cotton), Morus alba (mora), Plumeria (frangipani), Ricinus communis (castor bean), Carica papaya (papaw), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), Solanum melongena (aubergine), Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan). Secondary hosts: Prunus dulcis (bitter almond), Musa paradisiaca (plantain), Manihot esculenta (cassava), Psidium guajava (guava), Olea europaea subsp. europaea (olive).
Afghanistan; Bangladesh; China; Taiwan; Cyprus; India;
Iran; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Pakistan; Philippines; Thailand; Turkey; Yemen; Egypt; Kenya; Malawi; Mauritania; Mozambique; Nigeria; Senegal; South Africa;
Sudan; Swaziland; Australia
The presence of E. orientalis can be detected by discoloration of the host leaves and pale-yellow streaks along the midribs and veins. Adult females are larger than the males. They are oval and flattened and are often pale brown through brownish-green to dark green.
The citrus brown mite can only be identified by the adult male and is easily mistaken for the Texas citrus mite (E. banksi).
Females begin to lay eggs when only a few days old. The eggs are laid along the main veins of the host plant leaves and hatch after a week or less. The length of the entire life cycle is around 10-12 days. Adult longevity lies between 1 and 3 weeks. Under optimal conditions, there can be 10-30 generations per year, depending on the geographical location.
E. orientalis is also known under the following scientific names:
Anychus orientalis, Anychus ricini, Eutetranychus monodi Andre, Eutetranychus sudanicus Elbadry, Eutetranychus anneckei Meyer
Alternative English common names include oriental mite and oriental spider mite.
Note: The mites detected in Florida in January 2001 were originally identified as E. orientalis, but it is possible that they will eventually be described as a new species.
APPPC. 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional FAO Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA).
Baker, E.W. 1983. Pests not known to occur in the United States or of limited distribution. No. 41: Oriental red mite. Washington, USA: USDA-APHIS, 81-43.
McMurtry, J.A. 1985. Citrus. In: Helle, W. and Sabelis, M.W. (eds.). Spider Mites, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests 1(B). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 339-347.
University of Florida Pest Alert
Warning: The information in this archived item was not confirmed with the appropriate National Plant Protection Organization and is provided solely for informational purposes. Please use this information with caution.