Source: CAB International's "Crop Protection Compendium" on CD-ROM

 

NAMES AND TAXONOMY

 

PREFERRED NAME

 

Aphis glycines Matsumura, 1917

 

 

TAXONOMIC POSITION

 

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Arthropoda

Class: Insecta

Order: Hemiptera

Suborder: Sternorrhyncha

Superfamily: Aphidoidea

Family: Aphididae

 

 

OTHER NAMES USED

 

Aphis justiceae Shinji, 1922

 

 

BAYER CODE: APHIGY

 

 

COMMON NAMES

 

- English:

soyabean aphid

- French:

puceron du soja

- Germany:

sojabohnen-blattlaus

- Japan:

daizu-aburamusa

 

 

 

NOTES ON TAXONOMY AND NOMENCLATURE

 

A. glycines was first described by Matsumura in 1917. Only one synonym is known in the literature (Eastop and Hille Ris Lambers, 1976).

 

 

HOST RANGE

 

The winter host of A. glycines is Rhamnus davurica. The summer host range is limited and restricted to certain Leguminosae. In addition to cultivated soyabean, it has been found on wild Glycine species (Wang et al., 1962) and has also been recorded from Pueraria phaseoloides and Desmodium intortum (Blackman and Eastop, 1985).

 

 

 

Primary hosts: Glycine max (soyabean).

 

Secondary hosts: Rhamnus davurica, Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu).

 

Wild hosts: Glycine.

 

AFFECTED PLANT STAGES

 

Flowering stage, seedling stage, and vegetative growing stage.

 

 

AFFECTED PLANT PARTS

 

Whole plant, leaves, stems, and growing points.

 

 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

 

Notes on distribution

 

A. glycines is widely distributed in the soyabean-growing regions of the Far East. It is common in soyabean in China (Wang et al., 1962) and occurs in soyabean fields in the Philippines (Quimio and Calilung, 1993), Japan (Takahashi et al., 1993), Indonesia (Iwaki, 1979), Thailand (Napompeth, 1978), Korea, Malaysia and North Borneo (Blackman and Eastop, 1985).

 

 

List of countries

 

Europe

Russian Federation: present, no further details (D'yakonov, 1975)

Russian Far East: present, no further details (D'yakonov, 1975)

 

Asia

China: present, no further details (APPPC, 1987)

Heilongjiang: present, no further details (Wang et al., 1962)

Hong Kong: present, no further details (APPPC, 1987)

Jiangsu: present, no further details (Li & Pu, 1991)

Liaoning: present, no further details (Wang et al., 1962)

Shaanxi: present, no further details (Wang et al., 1993)

Indonesia: present, no further details (Iwaki, 1979; Waterhouse, 1993)

Japan: present, no further details (APPPC, 1987; Takahashi et al., 1993)

Korea, Republic of: present, no further details (APPPC, 1987; Chang et al., 1994)

Malaysia: present, no further details (Blackman & Eastop, 1985)

Philippines: present, no further details (Quimio & Calilung, 1993)

Thailand: present, no further details (Napompeth, 1978; Waterhouse, 1993; APPPC, 1987)

Vietnam: present, no further details (Waterhouse, 1993)

 

 

BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

 

A. glycines is heteroecious holocyclic (host-alternating with sexual reproduction during part of its life cycle). Winged sexual forms migrate from soyabeans to the winter host, Rhamnus davurica, where they mate and produce eggs which overwinter. Migration back to Glycine spp. occurs in early summer. The stem apices and young leaves of growing soyabean are colonized first; later on the aphids are found on the underside of leaves of mature plants. Aphid development is favoured in late June to early July by 22-25C optimum range of temperatures and RH<78% (Wang et al., 1962). Crowding of apterae (wingless parthenogenetic females) is the main factor in the production of alates (winged parthenogenetic females) on the summer host (Lu and Chen, 1993). Alates are responsible for dispersion to other secondary hosts. Out of a total of 18 generations per year, 15 were on soyabean (Wang et al., 1962).

 

Apterous and alate virginoparae of A. glycines were attracted to volatiles of the winter host (Rhamnus davurica) and that of a summer host (Glycine max) in a laboratory study (Du, 1992).

 

Takahashi et al. (1993) described the life cycle in Japan, along with observations on Rhamnaceae occasionally used as alternative winter hosts, particularly Rhamnus japonica.

 

Hybrid offspring from crosses between A. gossypii and A. glycines, which occasionally occur under both natural and artificial conditions, reproduced parthenogenetically and sexually to complete their life cycle (Zhang et al., 1982).

 

 

NATURAL ENEMIES

 

Notes on natural enemies

 

Chang et al. (1994) described the primary parasitoids and hyperparasitoids of A. glycines, from collections made in the Korean Republic. Out of 117 aphid mummies collected, 27% of adults emerging were primary parasitoids and 50% were hyperparasitoids. Aphidius cingulatus, Ephedrus persicae and E. plagiator were the most common primary parasitoids. The dominant hyperparasitoids were Asaphes vulgaris and Ardilea convexa.

 

Gao (1985) studied the braconid parasite Lysiphlebia japonica in Jilin, China, where an average of 56% (and a maximum of 76%) of individuals of A. glycines were parasitized.

 

 

List of natural enemies

 

Parasitoids:

- Alloxysta victrix, attacking: nymphs, in Korea

- Aphidius cingulatus, attacking: nymphs, in Korea

- Ephedrus persicae, attacking: nymphs, in Korea

- Ephedrus plagiator, attacking: nymphs, in Korea

- Lysiphlebia japonica, attacking: nymphs, in China, Korea

 

Hyperparasitoids:

- Ardilea convexa, in Korea

- Asaphes vulgaris, in Korea

 

Predators:

- Brumoides lineatus, attacking: eggs, larvae, nymphs, pupae, adults, in China

- Cheilomenes sexmaculata, attacking: nymphs, adults, in Philippines, Taiwan

- Coelophora saucia, attacking: eggs, larvae, nymphs, pupae, adults, in China

- Ischiodon scutellaris, attacking: eggs, larvae, nymphs, pupae, adults, in Philippines, Japan

- Mallada basalis, attacking: eggs, larvae, nymphs, pupae, adults, in Taiwan, China

- Paragus, in Philippines

 

 

ECONOMIC IMPACT

 

A. glycines is a major pest of soyabean in China, causing particularly severe damage in the regions of Kirin, Liaoning, Heilungkiang and Inner Mongolia (Wang et al., 1962).

 

Three periods of damage on soyabean can be recognized: (i) from seedling to blooming stage, when aphid populations reach their highest peak and colonies concentrate on young growth; (ii) in late July, when growth is completed and aphid colonies move lower down the plant to feed on underside of leaves; (iii) from late August to early September, when aphids multiply again before migrating back to the winter host (Wang et al., 1962).

 

In a study in Zhejiang, China, seedlings of soyabean cultivar Bawangdou were inoculated at the two-leaf stage with 5-220 individuals of A. glycines per plant. The number of aphids per plant and plant infestation rate were closely related to yield losses, which were 2.7-51.8% at 5-220 aphids per plant. Aphid infestation at the seedling stage affected yield mainly by reducing plant height and number of pods and seeds (Wang et al., 1994).

 

A. glycines is a vector of a number of viruses. Li and Pu (1991) found that epidemics of soyabean mosaic potyvirus (SMV) in summer-sown soyabean fields in Jiangsu, China, were closely related to the time of immigration of the aphid vectors, with A. glycines the most frequent (40.3-94.8% of the total population). Zhang (1982) artificially infested soyabean plants with alates of A. glycines and the incidence of the virus disease transmitted by this aphid reached almost 100% plant infectivity. D'yakonov (1975) showed A. glycines to be a vector in a non-persistent manner of soyabean mosaic virus in the south of the Soviet Far East.

 

A. glycines is able to transmit abaca mosaic, beet mosaic, tobacco vein-banding mosaic virus, peanut stripe potyvirus, mungbean mosaic virus and bean yellow mosaic virus.

 

 

PHYTOSANITARY RISK

 

The main means of dispersal of A. glycines is wind-borne dispersal of the winged forms. Dispersal of aphids on plant material is of relatively minor importance. However, phytosanitary measures are important in preventing the spread of soyabean mosaic virus, for which A. glycines is a vector. The virus is seedborne and infected seeds are often the main source of primary infection (Quimio and Calilung, 1993).

 

 

SYMPTOMS

 

Feeding on tender parts of young plants may result in stunted growth. Soyabean infected with soyabean mosaic virus has leaves with vein-clearing and chlorotic symptoms; plants become stunted with shortened petioles and internode lengths, and defoliation may lead to plant death (Quimio and Calilung, 1993).

 

Descriptors: Whole plant: dwarfing. Leaves: honeydew or sooty mould. Stems: external feeding. Growing points: external feeding.

 

 

MORPHOLOGY

 

A. glycines is a small yellow aphid with black siphunculi (Blackman and Eastop, 1985). Takahashi et al. (1993) presented biometric data, including body sizes: 1.89 mm for virginoparous aptera, 1.75 mm for virginoparous alata, 2.02 mm for gynopara, 1.5 mm for ovipara, 1.68 mm for alate males and 1.87 mm for both fundatrix and apterous fundatrigenia.

 

 

SIMILARITIES TO OTHER SPECIES

 

Takahashi et al. (1993) described the characteristic features of A. glycines, which could be used to separate it from other species; e.g. number of secondary rhinaria, number of caudal setae, length of siphunculi and length of last rostral segment.

 

 

DETECTION AND INSPECTION METHODS

 

Look for colonies in stem apices and young leaves of growing soyabean plants. On mature plants colonies are also found on undersides of larger leaves.

 

 

CONTROL

 

Chemical Control

 

Wang et al. (1993) reported results for different insecticides on seedling stages of soyabean in China. Significant control was achieved with phosalone, pirimicarb, omethoate and fenvalerate. Phosalone and fenvalerate were reported to cause less natural enemy mortality, whereas Qu et al. (1987) found that treatments of omethoate and fenvalerate at the seedling stage and diflubenzuron at the flowering and podding stages effectively controlled A. glycines, without harming most natural enemies. However, insecticides are usually ineffective at preventing the spread of non-persistent viruses as they kill the vector slowly.

 

Integrated Pest Management

 

Insecticides used in soyabean have different effects on natural enemy mortality (Wang et al., 1993) and appropriate insecticides should be used if natural control is to aid in pest management. Successful pest management has been achieved on soyabean using selective insecticides in conjunction with cultural control and resistant varieties.

 

Biological Control

 

A mass rearing programme for the predatory chrysopid Mallada basalis has been carried out in Taiwan for control of A. glycines. The coccinellid Coelophora saucia is a potential biological control agent with a life cycle synchronized to that of its host.

 

Host-Plant Resistance

 

Plant breeding programmes exist in China and Indonesia for development of soyabean varieties resistant to A. glycines. Sama et al. (1974) reported results for over 200 varieties screened in Indonesia. Plant breeding for resistance to soyabean mosaic virus transmitted by A. glycines has concentrated on cultivars with little or no seed transmission (Quimio and Calilung, 1993).

 

Cultural Control

 

Quimio and Calilung (1993) described cultural control practices that have been used in soyabean against A. glycines, including the planting of barrier crops (e.g. sunflower), the removal of weeds, roguing of infected plants and varying planting dates.

 

 

REFERENCES

 

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional FAO Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAPA).

 

Blackman RL, Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

 

Chang YD, Lee JY, Youn YN, 1994. Primary parasitoids and hyperparasitoids of the soyabean aphid, Aphis glycines (Homoptera: Aphididae). Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 33(2):51-55.

 

D'yakonov KP, 1975. Aphis glycines Mats. (Homoptera, Aphididae) as a vector of soybean mosaic virus in the south of the Soviet Far East. Trudy Biologo-Pochvennogo Instituta, 28(2):147-150.

 

Du Y, 1992. Physiological mechanisms of host selection behaviour of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. Ph.D. thesis. Beijing, China: University of Beijing.

 

Eastop VF, Hille Ris Lambers D, 1976. Survey of the World's Aphids. The Hague, Netherlands: DR. W. Junk bv Publishers.

 

Gao JF, 1985. Study on the utilization of Vysiphleba japonica (Hymen.: Braconidae). Natural Enemies of Insects, 7(3):152-154.

 

Iwaki M, 1979. Virus and mycoplasma diseases of leguminous crops in Indonesia. Review of Plant Protection Research, 12:88-97.

 

Li WM, Pu ZQ, 1991. Population dynamics of aphids and epidemics of soybean mosaic virus in summer sown soybean fields. Acta Phytophylactica Sinica, 18(3):123-126.

 

Lu LH, Chen RL, 1993. Study on the production of alatae in the soyabean aphid, Aphis glycines. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 36(2):143-149.

 

Napompeth B, 1978. Soybean insect pest management. Annual Report 1976-1977. Kasetsart University, Thailand, 26-27.

 

Qu YX, Ma ZQ, Shan DA, Gao XH, Wang QS, 1987. Effects of insecticides on the population of destructive insects and their natural enemies in soyabean fields. Plant Protection, 13(1):4-6.

 

Quimio GM, Calilung VJ, 1993. Survey of flying viruliferous aphid species and population build-up of Aphis glycines Matsumura in soybean fields. Philippine Entomologist, 9(1):52-100; 57 ref.

 

Sama S, Saleh KM, Halteren P van, 1974. Varietal screening for resistance to the aphid, Aphis glycines, in soybean. Agricultural Cooperation Indonesia The Netherlands, Research Reports 1968-1974, Section II, 1974, 171-172.

 

Takahashi S, Inaizumi M, Kawakami K, 1993. Life cycle of the soyabean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura, in Japan. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 37(4):207-212.

 

Wang CL, Siang NI, Chang GS, Chu HF, 1962. Studies on the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 11:31-44.

 

Wang QS, Shen DA, Ma ZQ, 1993. Effects of different pesticides on populations of main pest insects and natural enemies at the seedling stage in soyabean fields. Entomological Knowledge, 30(6):333-335.

 

Wang XB, Fang CH, Zheng XP, Lin ZZ, Zhang LR, Wang HD, 1994. A study on the damage and economic threshold of the soyabean aphid at the seedling stage. Plant Protection, 20(4):12-13.

 

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia., v + 141 pp.; [ACIAR Monograph No. 21]; 3 pp. of ref.

 

Zhang HJ, 1982. The relationship between population fluctuations of alates of the soyabean aphid and the epidemic level of soyabean virus disease in the field. Chinese Oil Crops Zhongguo Youliao, 2:59-61.

 

Zhang GX, Zhong TS, Chang GS, 1982. Experimental studies on some aphid life-cycle patterns. Sinozoologica, 2:7-17.