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Official Pest Reports for United States
Official Pest Reports are provided by National Plant Protection Organizations within the NAPPO region. These Pest Reports are intended to comply with the International Plant Protection Convention's Standard on Pest Reporting, endorsed by the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures in March 2002.
Pine Shoot Beetle (PSB), Tomicus piniperda, Notice of Quarantined Area - 12/13/2005
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This memorandum provides notification, effective immediately, for quarantine of all counties of Pennsylvania for PSB, Tomicus piniperda.  This action is in response to the decision made by the State of Pennsylvania, communicated to U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Information Service, by the Pennsylvania State Plant Regulatory Official, to end intrastate quarantine of counties where PSB has been detected, effective December 9, 2005.

 

Interstate movement from Pennsylvania of articles regulated for PSB must be in compliance with the stipulations of 7 CFR 301.50.

 

This action is authorized by 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) which provides for temporary designation pending publication of a rule to add new areas to the list shown in

7 CFR 301.50-3 (c).               

 

The 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) further requires written notification be given to the owner or person(s) in possession of a newly quarantined area.  This is the responsibility of the Federal and State regulatory personnel in charge of the PSB program in the affected state.

 

If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Staff Officer Weyman Fussell at (301) 734-5705. 



Listing and Regulation of Plants Recently Reported Associated with Phytophthora ramorum (sudden oak death) - 11/15/2005
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On February 14, 2002, the USDA’s Animal Plant Health Inspection Service published an interim rule in the Federal Register for Phytophthora ramorum (7 CFR 301.92).  This rule regulates the interstate movement of restricted and regulated articles to prevent the artificial spread of this disease-causing organism from areas where the disease is established.  APHIS also issued an Emergency Federal Order dated December 21, 2004, to regulate certain nurseries and plants to prevent the spread of the pathogen through nursery plants.  APHIS has now learned white fir (Abies concolor) and American cranberry viburnum (Viburnum opulus (= V. trilobum)) can be infected by P. ramorum and need to be regulated in order to control the artificial spread of this disease.  APHIS regulation of these additional plant taxa is effective November 28, 2005.  



Phytosanitary Incidents concerning Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 in the United States greenhouses- Detection and Eradication - 11/09/2005
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The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) confirmed detections of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, on geraniums with wilt symptoms in greenhouses in February of 2003 and again in December the same year.  In both cases, the vast majority of geraniums were from one supplier, with the first instance originating from Kenya and the later instance from Guatemala. The first plant confirmed positive by PPQ occurred on February 11, 2003, subsequent eradication commenced February 26, 2003, and ended May 1, 2003. In the second detection, the first confirmed positive plant occurred December 30, 2003, eradication commenced January 2004, and ended March 15, 2004. Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 has not been detected in the US since it was last eradicated in 2004. Furthermore, Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 has never been detected outside of a greenhouse. Strong offshore production, inspection, and certification requirements are operating to prevent repeat incursions of infected geraniums, as well as on imported propagative material of Solanaceous hosts.



Detection of the Chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) in Florida - 11/08/2005
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On October 19th, 2005, adult specimens of the Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, were identified by the Systematic Entomology Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland.  Specimens were from hobbyist rose plants in Palm Beach County sampled by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS).  Subsequently, S. dorsalis was also confirmed on roses and peppers in the Orlando area.  Scirtothrips doralis is known from Hawaii since 1987, and there were previous detections in Florida in 1991 and 1994, however FDACS has had no detections in the intervening years.

 

Scirtothrips dorsalis is found throughout Asia, Australia, Oceana, and some parts of Africa. The species was first reported in the Caribbean from peppers imported from the island of St. Vincent in 2003, and subsequently on St. Lucia in 2004. It has since been found on other Caribbean islands. Scirtothrips dorsalis feeds on a wide variety of crops and ornamental hosts including peppers, eggplant, bean, tomato, cucumbers, okra, cotton, pumpkin, grape, melon, kiwi, mango, orange, onion, chrysanthemum, rose, strawberry, and banana. Feeding typically deforms leaves, flowers, and fruits and severe infestation can cause plant stunting. Individuals of this thrips species are very small and difficult to identify in the field. Adults are less than one to two millimeters in length and have a pale body with dark wings. Nymphs cannot be reliably identified and adults must be mounted on slides and identified by an experienced taxonomist.

 

Inspectors with FDACS and the University of Florida began surveys in other areas in the State and the USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is pursuing traceback/traceforward investigations from the initial detection. Further surveys are planned after areas in South Florida impacted by Hurricane Wilma are safe for entry.  APHIS has completed pathway analysis studies for S. dorsalis, performed off-shore work on trapping and pesticides with the University of Florida, and has draft New Pest Response Guidelines prepared for this pest.  Further evaluations are necessary to determine the extent and possible impact of the Florida infestation.

 

For more information, please consult the FDACS Division of Plant Industry Pest Alert found at: http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/ento/chillithrips.html



Ceratitis capitata (Medfly) Detections and Quarantines in San Bernardino County and Santa Clara County, California - 10/25/2005
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SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

On October 7th and 9th, two more wild adult Medflies were detected in a separate core square mile approximately 2.5 miles northeast of the original detections in Rancho Cucamonga, CA (see PAS Official Pest Report for 10/05/2005).  Also on October 18, a mated wild female medfly, was trapped in a IPMT trap in a grapefruit tree. This detection is 2.3 miles southeast of the original group of finds.

A Federal and State quarantine was established of approximately 81 square miles surrounding the first group of detections. The Federal quarantine was established by Federal Order on October 4th. With the new detections establishing a new core, California Department of Food and Agriculture and APHIS will expand the quarantine boundaries. Foliar treatment, using protein bait spray (Spinosad), will be applied to all host trees within 200 meters of detection sites.

SANTA CLARA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

October 5th and 9th 2005 two wild Medflies were captured approximately 1 mile apart in a residential area of southern San Jose, CA. An increased delimitation survey is being conducted surrounding the two detection sites.

Foliar treatment will be applied to all host trees within 200 meters of the detection surrounding the detections in San Jose. The rate of aerial sterile fly release will be increased to 250,000 sterile male Medflies per square mile per week in a 10 sq mile area surrounding the infested property.

A Federal Order has been posted delineating the new quarantine area in Santa Clara County.



Pine Shoot Beetle (PSB), Tomicus piniperda, Notice of Quarantined Area in New Jersey - 10/25/2005
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This memorandum provides notification, effective immediately, for quarantine of Bergen, Hunterdon, Passaic, Sussex, and Warren Counties; New Jersey, for PSB.  This action results from positive identification of beetles trapped in these counties.  All interstate movement of regulated articles from Bergen, Hunterdon, Passaic, Sussex, and Warren Counties must comply with the PSB regulatory requirements per 7 CFR301.50.   

 

This action is authorized by 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) which provides for temporary designation of newly regulated areas pending publication of a rule to add new areas to the list shown in 7 CFR 301.50-3 (c).

               

The 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) further requires written notification be given to the owner or person(s) in possession of a newly quarantined area.  This is the responsibility of the Federal and State Regulatory personnel in charge of the PSB program in the affected state.

 

Prior to December 15, 2005, the State Plant Regulatory official for New Jersey must confirm the establishment of intra-state quarantines for Bergen, Hunterdon, Passaic, Sussex, and Warren Counties that mirror the Federal regulatory requirements as specified in 7 CFR301.50, otherwise; the entire state will be regulated for PSB as of that date to prevent the interstate movement of the pest from New Jersey.  Confirmation of the implementation of the required intra-state quarantine program should be made in writing to the APHIS’ State Plant Health Director for New Jersey.

 

If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Staff Officer Weyman Fussell at (301) 734-5705.  

 



Ceratitis capitata (Medfly), Quarantine Area in San Bernardino County, California - 10/05/2005
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Two wild mated female Medflies were detected, and reported to APHIS by the California Department of Food and Agriculture from a residential area of Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County on September 23, 2005.  The detection was confirmed as wild mated females on September 27, 2005 and is within the sterile Medfly Preventative Release Area program area.  Analyses are being performed to attest if the wild females were mated with sterile males.  The detection is within 4 miles of the Ontario airport.                                                                       

 

Foliar treatment, using protein bait spray (Spinosad), will be applied to all host trees within 200 meters of the detection.  The rate of aerial sterile fly release will be increased to 250,000 sterile male Medflies per square mile per week in a 9 sq mile area surrounding the infested property.



New Federal Restrictions to Prevent Movement of Citrus Greening - 09/19/2005
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On September 2, 2005, APHIS confirmed the findings of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) that identified the first U.S. detection of citrus greening caused by the bacterium, Liberibacter asiaticus.  The disease was detected through the APHIS-FDACS’ Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey Program (CAPS).  FDACS has imposed regulations governing the movement of certain material from Miami-Dade County.  PPQ is imposing similar restrictions to support our combined efforts to prevent movement of citrus greening disease from infested areas, effectively immediately.

 

All ornamental citrus psyllid host plant material in addition to all citrus is quarantined and prohibited from movement out of Miami-Dade County.  A compliance agreement is being developed in conjunction with FDACS that will include recommended controls and treatments for the citrus psyllid.  These treatments will allow for citrus psyllid host plant material (other than citrus) from Miami-Dade County to be shipped within the State of Florida and to non-citrus producing states.  The certification process for host plants of L. asiaticus is more complex and will take more time to develop certification procedures.  For all other counties, the interstate shipping (shipments outside the State of Florida) of all citrus psyllid host plants  (including citrus) is permitted, except to citrus producing states (Arizona, California, Louisiana, Texas, and Puerto Rico).  If citrus greening disease is detected in additional counties, the regulations established for Miami-Dade County will be applied. The current Citrus Canker quarantine areas remain in effect; these quarantines prohibit the movement of citrus out of the quarantine area.

 

The L. asiaticus and citrus psyllid host lists are posted on the Florida Division of Plant Industry website at: http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/ento/citrusgreening.html.  The most common hosts of both L. asiaticus and the citrus psyllid are:  Citrus and citrus relatives, Murraya spp. (Orange Jasmine, ‘Lakeview’, Curry Leaf, etc.), Triphasia trifolia (Lime Berry), Fortunella spp., Clausenia spp. (Wampi) and Severinia buxifolia (Chinese Box-Orange).  Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jack Fruit) is another common host of the citrus psyllid but has not yet been identified as a host of L. asiaticus.

 

Citrus greening disease is considered to be one of the most serious citrus diseases in the world.  The bacteria are transmitted primarily by insect vectors (citrus psyllid).  The citrus psyllid was first detected in Florida in 1998 and has since been detected throughout the state.

 

State and federal officials have implemented a unified command response and are presently assessing the extent of the disease in Florida citrus through a comprehensive survey of the area. Teams of experts, including scientists, state and federal agricultural officials and academia, have been established to quickly mobilize a response.  Because of the threat this disease poses to the Nation’s citrus, federal, and state agricultural officials have had on-going discussions planning for the appropriate detection and response initiatives that would need to be employed if and when the disease was identified in the United States.  The early detection of the disease by FDACS and APHIS/CAPS and the citrus greening survey is the result of these pre-planning activities.



Phytophthora ramorum (Sudden Oak Death): Revision of Associated Regulated Articles; Additions to APHIS List of Hosts and Plants - 09/14/2005
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On February 14, 2002, the USDA Animal Plant Health  Inspection Service (APHIS) published an interim rule in the Federal Register for Phytophthora ramorum (7 CFR 301.92).  This rule restricts the movement of certain restricted and regulated articles to prevent the artificial interstate spread of this disease-causing organism from areas where the disease is established.  APHIS also issued an Emergency Federal Order dated December 21, 2004, to regulate certain nurseries and plants to prevent the spread of the pathogen through nursery plants from California, Oregon and Washington.  APHIS has now learned that certain additional plants require regulating in order to control the artificial spread of this disease.  The purpose of this Official Pest Report is to provide notification that APHIS is listing and thus regulating eight new plants.

 

APHIS received information from the Department of Environment, Forestry, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) of the United Kingdom that they had officially identified three new plants associated with P. ramorum.  These are:  Acer laevigatum - Aceraceae (Evergreen maple), Michelia doltsopa - Magnoliaceae (Michelia), Quercus petraea - Fagaceae (Sessile oak).  These three were found in green areas (a public garden or park-like setting).

 

A California researcher alerted APHIS that five plants found in the infested area of California demonstrated symptoms and have been determined to be infected with P. ramorum.  These plants are:  Adiantum aleuticum – Polypodiaceae (Western maidenhair fern), Fraxinus latifoliaOleaceae (Oregon ash), Osmorhiza berteroi – Apiaceae (Sweet Cicely), Torreya californica – Taxaceae (California nutmeg), and Vancouveria planipetala – Berberidaceae (Redwood ivy).  All of these were found in a forest setting in the infested areas of California.

 

Therefore, these plants are now listed in the APHIS List of Hosts and Plants Associated with Phytophthora ramorum.  Effective immediately, the following are associated regulated articles which will be listed in 7 CFR 301.92 and in PPQ orders restricting the movement of nursery stock to prevent the spread of P. ramorum:

 

  • Acer laevigatum - Aceraceae (Evergreen maple)
    • Frost sensitive tree native to China
    • Detected in Europe in green area
    • Symptoms – chlorotic leaves and leaf necrosis

 

  • Adiantum aleuticum – Polypodiaceae (Western maidenhair fern)
    • Fern native to parts of the United States
    • Detected in forested setting in California infested area
    • Symptoms – leaf necrosis

 

  • Fraxinus latifoliaOleaceae (Oregon ash)
    • Tree, native to U.S. west coast
    • Detected in forested setting in California infested area
    • Symptom – Leaf necrosis

 

  • Michelia doltsopa - Magnoliaceae (Michelia)
    • Small tree, native to China
    • Detected in green areas of the United Kingdom
    • Symptom – necrotic leaf lesions

 

  • Osmorhiza berteroi – Apiaceae (Sweet Cicely)
    • Perennial herb, native to United States
    • Detected in green area in California infested area
    • Symptoms – necrotic leaf lesions, marginal necrosis and leaf dieback

 

  • Quercus petraea - Fagaceae (Sessile oak)
    • Large tree, native to United Kingdom
    • Detected in green areas of the United Kingdom
    • Symptom – bole canker

 

  • Torreya californica – Taxaceae (California nutmeg)
    • Tree, native to California
    • Detected in forested setting in California infested area
    • Symptoms – wilted necrotic shoots and twig cankers

 

  • Vancouveria planipetala – Berberidaceae (Redwood ivy)
    • Perennial herb, native to U.S. west coast
    • Detected in forested setting in California infested area
    • Symptom – necrotic leaf lesions

 

This action is authorized under the Plant Protection Act, as amended, Section 412(a), which authorizes the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture to prohibit or restrict the movement in interstate commerce of any plant, plant part, or article, if the Secretary determines the prohibition or restriction is necessary to prevent the dissemination of a plant pest within the United States. 

                                                                                                                                               

This action is also authorized by 7 CFR 301.92-2(b)(2) which designates restricted articles or any other product or article that an inspector determines to present a risk of spreading P. ramorum.  This designation requires the inspector to notify the person in possession of the product or article that it is an associated article.

 

In accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act, this action will be published as a regulatory update in the Federal Register for public comment.



Regulatory Response to Detections of Cerambycids in Bamboo Plant Stakes - 08/25/2005
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Effective September 1, 2005, APHIS will require mandatory methyl bromide fumigation using the T404-d treatment schedule of all bundled bamboo poles and garden stakes imported from various countries upon arrival in the United States. This action is based on multiple quarantine pest interceptions which included Chlorophorus annularis (tiger longhorned beetle) and Niphoma sp.

Previously, bundled bamboo poles and garden stakes did not require fumigation with methyl bromide if they were completely dyed. However, due to interceptions of multiple quarantine pests from dyed bamboos we determined that the dyeing process being used is not an effective treatment to adequately mitigate the pest risk. In addition, many shipments reported as dyed contained both dyed and non-dyed bamboo plant stakes.

Consumers are advised to immediately report any live insects they detect associated with bamboo stakes to State or APHIS offices.



Detection of Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) (sirex woodwasp) in Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oswego Counties in New York - 08/09/2005
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On July 5, 2005, the Systematic Entomology Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland, confirmed that male and female woodwasps, which were reared from scotch pine logs (Pinus sylvestris L.) that had been cut from standing trees in Oswego (Oswego County) New York, are Sirex noctilio.    This is the first report of a reproducing population of this APHIS’ Regulated Plant Pest in the United States. 

 

As a follow-up to the February 19, 2005, confirmation of a single female S. noctilio collected from a Lindgren funnel trap in Fulton (Oswego County) New York, a team of scientists and regulatory officials from APHIS, the United States Forest Service, and the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets surveyed pine trees in Fulton and Oswego, New York.  Six scotch pine and two red pine (Pinus resinosa Soland) trees in Oswego were identified as suspect by Dr. Dennis Haugen, with U.S. Forest Service (FS), and were tagged on May 12, 2005. The scotch pine trees were felled on May 20, 2005, and logs were sent to the APHIS’ Pest Survey Detection and Exclusion Laboratory at Otis Air National Guard Base, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for rearing experiments.  On July 15, 2005, the two remaining red pine trees were felled and logs were sent to the APHIS’ Cape Cod, Massachusetts Laboratory for rearing.

 

In response to the confirmed detections of S. noctilio in Oswego County, New York, the

 “2005 S. noctilio Trapping Survey Plan” was designed by the APHIS Pest Survey Detection and Exclusion Laboratory and implemented on July 6, 2005 by APHIS and the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets.  During the week of July 17, the delimiting survey yielded eight female woodwasps which were identified as S. noctilio by Dr. E. Richard Hoebeke, with Cornell University, and confirmed by the Systematic Entomology Laboratory on

August 1, 2005.  All these sirex woodwasps were collected in Lindgren funnel traps.  At the

10-mile radius trap circle, one female was captured in Oswego County.  At the 20-mile radius trap circle, seven S. noctilio females were caught, all at different locations and in three different counties (Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oswego).

 

APHIS is coordinating with the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets to continue delimiting surveys and the U.S. FS is assisting by providing ground survey personnel and conducting aerial surveys of host trees in Oswego and surrounding counties in New York.  

 

New Pest Response Guidelines for S. noctilio are undergoing internal review by APHIS’ scientists and external review by the National Plant Board and the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets and will be published as soon as the guidelines have been finalized. 



APHIS Lifts Restrictions on Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly) Host Material from Mexico - 08/05/2005
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Based on the conclusion of three life cycles of negative trapping within the regulated area for Medfly in the municipality of Tijuana, México, effective immediately APHIS is removing the remaining restrictions on Medfly host material moving from Tijuana, Mexico.

 

On September 16, 2004, ten adult Medfly males were found in the Municipality of Tijuana, México, by APHIS’ officials.  APHIS immediately responded to the outbreak by halting imports of all Medfly host material from Tijuana and temporarily modified the entry requirements for all Medfly host material entering the United States from México.

 

On October 15, 2004, a Technical Assessment Team met in Tijuana, México, to review the progress made in eradicating the Medfly outbreak and it was determined that satisfactory progress was being made.

 

On November 9, 2004, APHIS eliminated some of the phytosanitary measures implemented to restrict the movement of Medfly host material from Tijuana into the United States.  Specifically, the requirements to cut fruit and seal shipments of host material moving through United States’ ports east of the San Luis, Arizona, checkpoint were removed.  On March 8, 2005, APHIS eliminated the phytosanitary certification requirements for Medfly host material moving through the following United States’ ports of entry:  San Luis, Arizona and Calexico and Tecate, California.

 

On July 16, 2005, following the completion of three life cycles of trapping, APHIS confirmed that no more wild flies were detected.  Therefore, APHIS will notify Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación that effective immediately we are lifting the remaining restrictions on Medfly host material moving from Tijuana, México. 



Phytophthora ramorum (Sudden Oak Death): Revision of Associated Regulated Articles; Additions to APHIS List of Hosts and Plants Associated with Phytophthora ramorum; Interim Application of Emergency Federal Order - 08/04/2005
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On 14 February 2002, APHIS published an interim rule in the Federal Register for Phytophthora ramorum (7 CFR 301.92).  This rule restricts the movement of certain restricted and regulated articles to prevent the artificial spread interstate of this disease-causing organism from areas where the disease is established. APHIS also issued an Emergency Federal Order dated 21 December 2004 to regulate certain nurseries and plants to prevent the spread of the pathogen through nursery plants. The USDA has now learned that certain additional plants require regulating in order to control the artificial spread of this disease. The purpose of this SPRO is to provide notification that APHIS is listing ten new plants and establishing an interim policy for incorporating these into the Federal Order.

 

The USDA received information from the Department of Environment, Forestry, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) of the United Kingdom that they had officially identified five new plants associated with P. ramorum.  These are: Hamamelis mollis – Hamamelidaceae (Chinese witch-hazel), Magnolia stellata – Magnoliaceae (star magnolia), Magnolia x loebneri – Magnoliaceae (Loebner magnolia), Magnolia x soulangeana – Magnoliaceae (saucer or Japanese magnolia), and Acer pseudoplatanus – Aceraceae (Planetree maple).

 

The USDA received information from the Plant Protection Service of the Netherlands that they had officially identified one new plant in their nursery survey associated with P. ramorum. This is: Taxus media –Taxaceae (Yew).

 

A California researcher has alerted us that two plants found established in a park in the infested area of California demonstrated symptoms and has been determined to be infected with P. ramorum. These two plants are: Adiantum californica – Polypodiaceae (California maidenhair fern) and Calycanthus occidentalisCalycanthaceae (spicebush).

 

Therefore, these plants are now listed in the APHIS List of Hosts and Plants Associated with Phytophthora ramorum. Effective immediately the following are associated regulated articles which will be listed in 7 CFR 301.92 and in PPQ orders restricting the movement of nursery stock to prevent the spread of P. ramorum:

 

·         Acer pseudoplatanus - Aceraceae (Planetree maple)

o        Medium sized tree native to Europe and western Asia

o        Bole canker

 

·         Adiantum jordanii Polypodiaceae (California maidenhair fern)

o        Perennial fern native to US West coast

o        Leaf blight

 

·         Calycanthus occidentalisCalycanthaceae (spicebush)

o        Deciduous shrub native to western coastal states

o        Leaf blight and dieback

 

·         Hamamelis mollis – Hamamelidaceae (Chinese witch-hazel)

o        Small tree from China;

o        Koch’s postulates not completed

o        Leaf blight and dieback

 

·         Magnolia stellata – Magnoliaceae (star magnolia)

o        Small tree from Japan

o        Koch’s postulates pending

o        Leaf blight

 

·         Magnolia x loebneri – Magnoliaceae (Loebner magnolia)

o        Ornamental tree , a hybrid from a cross between M. kobus and M. stellata

o        Koch’s postulates pending

o        Leaf blight

 

·         Magnolia x soulangeana – Magnoliaceae (saucer or Japanese magnolia)

o        Shrubby hybrid, the parents of this hybrid are M. heptapeta and M. liliiflora which are both native to Japan

o        Koch’s postulates pending

o        Leaf blight and dieback

 

·         Taxus media – Taxaceae (Yew)  

o        Evergreen shrub, the parents of this hybrid are Taxus baccata and                   T. cuspidata]

o        Basal stem canker

 

In addition, two new plants have been identified as new hosts for which Koch’s postulates have been completed.  The USDA received information from the Department of Environment, Forestry, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) of the United Kingdom that they have officially identified two new plants infected with P. ramorum and completed Koch’s postulates. These are: Griselinia littoralis – Cornaceae (Griselinia), and Parrotia persica – Hamamelidaceae (Persian Parrotia or irontree). Therefore, these plants are now listed in the APHIS List of Hosts and Plants Associated with Phytophthora ramorum and effective immediately are regulated articles which will be listed in 7 CFR 301.92 and in PPQ orders restricting the movement of nursery stock to prevent the spread of P. ramorum:

 

·         Griselinia littoralis – Cornaceae (Griselinia)

o       Hardy privet-like hedge

Regulatory Response to Detections of False Codling Moth (FCM) by California Inspectors in South African Citrus - 06/28/2005
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On June 16, 2005, California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) inspectors found 1 live and 1 dead larvae on a shipment of South African clementines at the California border station in Needles. The larvae were identified by both a CDFA lab and the USDA Systematic Entomology Laboratory (SEL) Specialist as False Codling Moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta, Meyrick.  The fruit had entered the United States at the port of Philadelphia (PA).  Initial review of the cold treatment records did not reveal failures in the treatment.

 

On June 20, a second live larva was intercepted on a separate shipment of South African clementines in California.   This shipment arrived on June 14, 2005. This larva was identified by CDFA as FCM.

 

The fruit from both vessels had undergone the following phytosanitary measures:

·  Pre-inspection in South Africa under USDA supervision to ensure it was not infested above a set tolerance for FCM

·  Pre-cooled under South African supervision to 31o F

·  Cold treated in transit under USDA guidelines for 22 days at 31o F

·  Inspected on arrival by Customs and Border Protection. A total of 750 fruit were inspected and cut from the first vessel and 910 fruit from the second one. No live or dead larvae were detected.

 

In response to the CDFA detections, a market place survey of fruit from the two vessels was conducted by APHIS and various States.  No live larvae were found. In addition, a “pause” was instituted by USDA on further loading of citrus in South Africa.  Emergency Action Notifications were issued and fruit from the infested lots in California was destroyed.

 

A third vessel arrived in Philadelphia on June 23. APHIS instituted an elevated inspection level to ensure a 95% confidence of detecting a 1.0% infestation in the cold treated fruit. On that day APHIS’ Center for Plant Health, Science and Technology (CPHST) issued a recommendation that the treatment schedule for FCM be adjusted to 24 days at 31o F with mandatory precooling, supervised by USDA.

 

Based on best information available, APHIS is taking the following actions:

 

A.  For the fruit from the first two vessels, already in United States commerce: Extensive inspection and market sampling does not indicate a programmatic breakdown.

·  Continue marketplace sampling to determine if live larvae are present

 

B.  For fruit off the third vessel, dockside in the Port of Philadelphia, which successfully completed cold treatment:

·  Continue inspecting and fruit cutting at an elevated level

·  Hold fruit dockside until all compartments are inspected.

·  Release, if no live larvae are found

·  Advise importers to check with State Departments of Agriculture in citrus growing States about special concerns.

 

C.  For fruit on three vessels currently on the water.

·  Require either a 25 day cold treatment at 31o F, OR, if precooling records can be adequately verified by USDA inspectors in South Africa, require a 24 day cold treatment

·  Continue to inspect and cut fruit at the elevated rates, upon arrival in the United States

 

D.  For future shipments from South Africa

·  Mandatory precooling to 31o F, supervised by USDA

·  Revised tolerance for FCM, prior to cold treatment

·  24 day in transit cold treatment

·  Monitoring inspection and cutting upon arrival in the US by CBP and/or APHIS

 

Please advise consumers who contact you on this issue, to immediately report any live insects they detect associated with South African citrus to State or APHIS offices. A stakeholder announcement will be available early next week on the APHIS website.  We welcome cooperation and communication with State Plant Regulatory Officials on this issue.

Q-Biotype of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci - 06/01/2005
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Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) is applying the current policy for the B-Biotype of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (“non-reportable/non-actionable”), to the recently detected Q-Biotype.  PPQ will facilitate the work of the ad hoc Q-Biotype Whitefly Taskforce, with the purpose of identifying the tools and principles necessary to minimize the impact of this high-consequence plant pest on affected industries.

 

The Q-Biotype is now the most prevalent type of whitefly in the Mediterranean basin.  It is resistant to many of the insecticides that are effective against the previously dominant B-Biotype.  The Q-Biotype has greatly complicated insect management in the Mediterranean basin and has been associated with significant increases in insecticide use.

 

In December 2004, specimens of the Q-Biotype whitefly were identified from a retail market in Tucson, Arizona.  This resulted in PPQ convening a New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) for information gathering and recommendations.  The NPAG has recommended that PPQ apply its current “non-reportable/non-actionable” policy of the B-Biotype of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, to the Q-Biotype.  The NPAG’s recommendations were based on the following findings:

 

The B- and Q-Biotypes can not be distinguished morphologically.  The two biotypes can be distinguished using biochemical and/or molecular diagnostic tests but these require extended periods of time, expertise, and specialized facilities.  This in combination with the wide host range renders detection at ports impractical. 

 

Experience with B-Biotype has shown that this species of whitefly is difficult, if not impossible, to either contain or eradicate.  The Q-biotype has enhanced ability to resist the effect of insecticides and thus poses challenges beyond the B-biotype.

 

Therefore, there is low probability that regulatory action against this pest would be effective.

 

Subsequent to the recent discovery of Q-Biotype, industry leaders met with members of the scientific community and Federal and state regulatory officials in April 2005 in Phoenix, Arizona, to explore options for dealing with the Q-Biotype whitefly.  As a result, industry leaders have requested that APHIS-PPQ coordinate the formation of an ad hoc taskforce to address relevant issues pertaining to this pest.

 

The ad hoc Whitefly Taskforce is now being formed under PPQ leadership to facilitate communication and cooperation among relevant representatives from industries (production and protection), the research community, and Federal and state regulatory agencies.  It will provide a flexible framework within which these groups can cooperate in responding to this pest.  Members of the taskforce will work together to effectively address and avoid the potential problems posed by Q-Biotype whitefly; in particular, the economic damage that could potentially affect all industries if this pest were to become established and develop additional resistance to insecticides.



Chrysanthemum White Rust (CWR): Limited Infestation in California - 04/07/2005
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On December 1, 2004, Puccinia horiana, CWR, a pest of quarantine significance to the United States and regulated under CFR Title 7, 319.37-2, was suspected among growing plants of Dendranthema (florist’s mum) in a nursery in Carpenteria, Santa Barbara County, California by Santa Barbara County Plant Pathologist. 

 

The California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) confirmed the presence of CWR on December 2.  On December 7, APHIS issued Emergency action notice (EAN) and began survey of the property on December 9.  On December 15, the destruction of affected plants was completed in addition to mandated fungicidal treatments required by the management plan.  A dooryard survey was conducted by CDFA and APHIS on December 16 with no findings of the disease in the environment.  On February 8, during a routine plant pest nursery survey, a Santa Barbara plant pathologist, again, discovered new pustules on the same property which were confirmed as CWR on December 2, 2004. Further inspections and regulatory treatments were conducted by Santa Barbara County Agriculture Officials, CDFA, and APHIS’ Plant Protection and Quarantine personnel. 

 

About 16,000 plants have been destroyed.  The actions required under the Santa Barbara County hold order, and the Federal EAN, inspections, and eradication efforts have been ongoing since the new discovery on February 8.  The infestation was considered limited in scope based on the number of infested plants detected.

 

The CWR management plan will be amended to deal with the problem of repeated sequential multiple infection in the same facility. 



Detection of the European wood wasp, Sirex noctilio (Fabricius) in New York - 03/03/2005
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On February 19, 2005, a single European wood wasp, Sirex noctilio, was identified in a sample collected as part of the New York State Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey National Exotic Wood Borer and Bark Beetle Survey, by E. R. Hoebeke, Ph.D. (Cornell University).  It was confirmed by the Systematic Entomology Laboratory in Beltsville, MD on February 23, 2005.   This female wasp was collected on September 7, 2004, from a Lindgren funnel trap placed among "mixed hardwoods and pine" just inside a forest edge adjacent to a recreational field at Fulton, NY (Oswego Country).  The detection of a single female S. noctilio in a warehouse was previously reported in the United States on July 22, 2002.  It was found at the Otis Elevator Co. in Bloomington, Indiana by Otis Elevator staff and was verified as S. noctilio by the Systematic Entomology Laboratory (SEL), Beltsville MD on August 01, 2002.  No other detections were made in the follow-up survey in that area.  On November 11, 2003, S. noctilio was added to the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List.

 

Sirex noctilio is considered a secondary pest of trees in its native range.  In addition to its preferred hosts, Pinus spp. (pines), S. noctilio will use Picea (spruce), Abies (fir), Larix (larch), and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir).  S. noctilio has a mutualistic relationship with a fungus, Amylostereum areolatum. The vectored fungus, A. areolatum and the mucus injected by S. noctilio rapidly weaken host trees, rendering them susceptible to larval feeding.  Sirex noctilio is endemic to Europe, Asia, and northern Africa and has successfully established in South Africa, South America, Australia and New Zealand.  Based on its native range in Europe and Asia, S. noctilio could establish in any climate zone of North America where pine occurs. This pest is attracted to stressed trees that are often used to make solid wood packing material (SWPM). Since the life cycle can take a year or more, the insect could be transported easily in pallets or other SWPM and not be detected at a port.  In South Africa, Australia and South America where pine is cultivated in plantations, S. noctilio causes significant tree mortality and is considered a major pest.

 

Sirex noctilio New Pest Response Guidelines are completed in draft and are due for publication shortly.  This information is available for dissemination to industry and the public, as well as for use by state regulatory agencies. APHIS will coordinate with the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets and the United States Forest Service to conduct surveys for symptoms and the presence of life stages that may demonstrate establishment, to define the areas that may be affected by this pest, and to develop an appropriate regulatory response. 

APHIS Suspends Wood Craft Imports from China - 02/23/2005
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On February 16, 2005, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) presented a letter to the People’s Republic of China regarding their intent to suspend imports of Chinese-origin craft items made from wooden logs, limbs, branches or twigs greater than 1 centimeter in diameter and with intact bark.  This import suspension, beginning April 1, 2005 will affect, but is not limited to, artificial Christmas trees with wooden trunks and garden trellises. 

APHIS is concerned with the potential introduction of wood-boring quarantine pests into the United States from China.  The primary insects of concern are Callidiellum villosulum and Callidiellum rufipenne, also known as the brown (fir) longhorn beetle and the Japanese cedar longhorn beetle, which are both related to the Asian longhorn beetle; currently being eradicated in Chicago and the Metropolitan New York area.

In January 2005, APHIS conducted its fourth recall in a consecutive six month period for wooden decorative items imported from China.  The last recall was the result of the Maryland Department of Agriculture interception of multiple Callidiellum villosulum beetles that had emerged from kiln dried certified artificial Christmas trees manufactured in China.  Callidiellum villosulum is believed to be native to the Henan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Fujian Provinces in China.  Because this insect appears to be capable of attacking living trees and could survive in the southern third of the United States, it is perceived as a high-risk pest.

The craft items, such as the artificial Christmas trees, had been enterable into the United States from China with heat treatment (T494-b-4 kiln sterilization).  However, continual interception of quarantine significant pests indicates a failure in the Chinese kiln drying program.  The restriction will remain in place, pending the adoption of adequate mitigation measures by Chinese exporters. 



Recent Detections of Citrus Canker Disease in Florida - 01/19/2005
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There have been recent detections of citrus canker disease in Florida, some of which have been adjacent to or near existing quarantine areas and some in areas away from currently infested areas.  Regulatory action is being taken in all new locations.  

 

The recent infestations were found under surveys conducted by the State and USDA.  The State is responsible for surveying commercial citrus groves on a regular (usually annual) basis, and USDA conducts a sentinel tree survey program in residential areas.  In addition, the State conducts regular surveys at locations in and adjacent to the quarantine areas.  New infestations in Cape Coral and Pine Island in Lee County, Punta Gorda in Charlotte County, Sun City Center in Hillsborough County (actually the site of a former infestation), and several locations near Orlando in Orange County are all in or near existing quarantine areas.  In addition there have detections in residential areas that are not near any current infestations – in the Kissimmee area in Osceola County, and at Port St. Lucie and Spanish Lakes Fairways in St. Lucie County.  The find in Port St. Lucie is about 50-60 miles from existing areas of infestation. 

 

In the case of the new detections in commercial citrus groves there is a similar pattern.  Most of the new detections were in or near existing quarantine areas, including those in Collier, Highlands, DeSoto, and Orange Counties.  Two of the detections were in areas where there was no history of nearby infestations – a relatively large infestation (850+ acres) in northern Charlotte County, and most recently an infestation in a 30 acre grove in Indian River County.

 

The recent finds are associated with the three hurricanes experienced by Peninsular Florida in 2004.  Nearly every citrus growing area of the State was affected by at least one of the hurricanes, and some areas were visited by two or even all three of the hurricanes.  If citrus canker is present, hurricanes can be effective in spreading the disease.  At the time of the hurricanes it was believed by State and USDA officials that there were no known infected trees in any of the quarantine areas outside of the Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach County residential areas – the one part of the State that was not directly affected by the Hurricanes.

 

The State is working to remove infected and exposed trees as quickly as possible to eliminate the chance of further spread.  With the exception of the infestation in Indian River County, all infected trees and all other citrus trees within 1,900 feet of any infected tree (exposed trees) at infested groves have been destroyed.  Destruction of the infected and exposed trees at the Indian River County grove should be completed by January 21.  

 

Regulatory action has been taken at the locations of all of the new infestations.  The movement of fruit and plant material is prohibited from any property where citrus canker has been found.  Regulatory action has also been taken to prevent the movement of fruit and plant material from groves and other properties near infested properties while delimiting surveys are being conducted.  Once the extent of the new infestations is known, the State in consultation with USDA establishes appropriate quarantine areas.  These new quarantine areas will also be incorporated into the Federal Citrus Canker Quarantine (7 CFR, Part 301.75).

 



Pine Shoot Beetle (PSB), Tomicus piniperda, Notice of Quarantined Area - 01/12/2005
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This memorandum provides notification, effective immediately, for quarantine of the following counties of Minnesota for Pine Shoot Beetle (PSB), Tomicus piniperda: Ramsey, Dakota, and Anoka.

This action is authorized by 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) which provides for temporary designation pending publication of a rule to add new areas to the list shown in 7 CFR 301.50-3 (c). This action is in response to recent trapping detections in the indicated counties.

The 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) further requires written notification be given to the owner or person(s) in possession of a newly quarantined area. This is the responsibility of the Federal and State Regulatory personnel in charge of the PSB program in the affected state.

Prior to March 1, 2005, the State Plant Regulatory Official for Minnesota must confirm the establishment of a parallel intra-state quarantine encompassing these counties, or the entire state will be regulated for PSB as of that date. The confirmation should be made in writing to APHIS’ State Plant Health Director for Minnesota.

If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Staff Officer Weyman Fussell at (301) 734-8247. For information on the PSB survey and trapping program, please contact your respective State Plant Health Director.

We continue to appreciate the cooperative relationship with each state affected by PSB.



Recall of Artificial Christmas Trees with Wood Trunks from China - 12/10/2004
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This pest report supersedes the pest report posted on November 16, 2004. Additions to the report are in red text.

 

On December 7, 2004, Michigan Department of Agriculture officials detected a quarantine significant pest, Callidiellum villosulum (Cerambycidae), in artificial Christmas trees made from wood trunks imported from China.  The adult beetles were removed from the wooden portion of the artificial tree sold in a Michael’s Craft store.  The product was traced back to the Polytree Company in China.  Polytree was also involved with a recall last month on similar artificial trees sold at Ace Hardware.  The infested artificial tree was 6 feet tall and packed in boxes marked with Polytree HK Co. Ltd. Numerous retail outlets have been identified as selling this product.

 

APHIS is performing further investigations and tracebacks to other Polytree shipments, as well as other manufacturers in China and Hong Kong (HK).  Due to an apparent systems failure in the kiln drying process, the following actions are being taken by APHIS:

 

·        A recall was issued for all Polytree artificial Christmas trees with natural wood trunks from China.

·        Emergency Action Notifications are to be issued to retail companies and importers to ensure that known infested material is moved out of commerce.  The product can be incinerated or buried in deep landfill.

·        Investigations will continue of other importers and distributors of any such trees with real wood trunks to verify compliance with the import requirements.

·        A request has been made to PPQ’s Center for Plant Health Science and Technology to provide a risk assessment within the next 60 days to determine the need for an interim rule to further restrict similar products made with real tree limbs and trunks.

 

Please advise consumers who find live insects to place them in plastic bags and freeze them.  Insects intercepted should be turned over to the local Agricultural Cooperative Extension Service for identification.  Information from the exterior boxes of the trees including barcodes and place and approximate date of purchase would also be helpful.

 

A stakeholder announcement and press release will soon be available on the APHIS website.  We welcome cooperation and communication between PPQ State Plant Health Directors and State Plant Regulatory Officials on this issue.

 



Pine Shoot Beetle (PSB), Tomicus piniperda, Notice of Quarantined Area - 11/23/2004
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This memorandum provides notification, effective immediately, for quarantine of the entire state of New Hampshire for PSB, Tomicus piniperda.

 

This action is authorized by 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) which provides for temporary designation pending publication of a rule to add new areas to the list shown in 7 CFR 301.50-3 (c).  This action is in response to the decision made by the state of New Hampshire, Department of Agriculture, communicated to APHIS/USDA via letter of October 25, 2004, revoking the New Hampshire intrastate quarantine for PSB, Tomicus piniperda.                          

 

The 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) further requires written notification be given to the owner or person(s) in possession of a newly quarantined area.  This is the responsibility of the Federal and State regulatory personnel in charge of the PSB program in the affected state.

 

If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Staff Officer, Weyman Fussell at (301) 734-8247.  For information on the PSB survey and trapping program, please contact your respective State Plant Health Director.

 

We continue to appreciate the cooperative relationship with each state affected by PSB.



Detection of Puccinia veronicae-longifoliae Savile in Michigan - 11/23/2004
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On October 29, 2004, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), National Identification Service confirmed the identification of Puccinia veronicae-longifoliae Savile, an exotic “rust” fungus.  A commercial nursery operator in Michigan observed foliar disease symptoms on field-grown Veronica plants.  Samples were collected by the Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) for preliminary identification at their laboratory.

 

The source of the infection is unknown at this time.  The nursery uses both in-house stock and cuttings obtained from a facility in Costa Rica.  Trace backs determined that the Costa Rican facility received its nuclear or “mother” stock from both the United States (California, Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Washington) and Europe.  More than 1.2 million un-rooted Veronica cuttings were shipped last year from the Costa Rican facility to growers in 30 U.S. states and four provinces in Canada.  To date, there have been no other reports of P. veronicae-longifoliae from any other Michigan nursery or from nurseries in any other U.S. state, or in Canada, Costa Rica or the facility in Costa Rica.  As soon as rust in the Michigan nursery was positively identified, all suspect plants were restricted by MDA.  However, prior to confirmation, plants had been shipped to 41 establishments in 19 U.S. states.  Reportedly, actions will be voluntarily taken to disinfest the Veronica field site to prevent spread of the pathogen.

 

Puccinia veronicae-longifoliae is an obligate plant parasitic fungus that requires one host species to complete its life cycle.  Veronica spicatum, V. longifolia and V. montana are reported hosts.  The known distribution of the pathogen is China, Denmark, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Taiwan and the United Kingdom.  Typically, rust-infected plants develop pustules on leaf surfaces that rupture the epidermis and eventually release colored spores-hence the name rust.  When infections are not controlled, rust pustules reduce the aesthetic value of plants.  Pustules can coalesce to form necrotic areas and severe infections can cause premature leaf drop and reduced vigor and flower production.

 

The New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) held a teleconference November 5, 2004 to discuss the Veronica rust situation.  Subsequently, the risk and hazard of this pathogen were assessed by NPAG through literature research, PPQ database queries, and discussions with subject-matter experts.  Based on NPAG’s assessment, APHIS will not classify P. veronicae-longifoliae as a quarantine significant pest and no Federal regulatory action will be taken.  The rationale for this action is:

 

·         P. veronicae-longifoliae is a host-specific, fungal pathogen, only known to affect the foliage of three species of Veronica, none of which are listed as Threatened and Endangered in the United States.

 

·         Veronica is an herbaceous perennial landscape plant of minor economic, environmental and social importance.

 

·         State Integrated Pest Management programs are likely to provide efficacious control of Veronica rust.



Recall of Artificial Christmas Trees with Wood Trunks from China - 11/16/2004
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On November 3, 2004, APHIS inspectors detected a quarantine significant pest, Callidiellum villosulum (Cerambycidae), in artificial Christmas trees with wood trunks imported from China.  The infested wood product detected by a homeowner in Saginaw, Michigan, was referred to the Michigan Department of Agriculture and traced back to the store where it was purchased.  Further investigation by APHIS found that heat treatment certificates accompanying the two shipments indicate the treatment conducted did not meet U.S. entry requirements.

 

In response, APHIS is taking the following actions:

 

·                    A limited recall was issued for those artificial Christmas trees from two Bills of Lading associated with the specific product that was found to contain the infestation.  Purchase order codes are being used as the basis of identifying products for recall. 

·                    An alert was issued to Customs and Border Protection (CBP) at ports of entry to target specific shipments from the exporter, verify heat treatment certification that meet U.S. entry requirements, and conduct additional inspections on other related shipments.

·                    Emergency Action Notifications were issued to stores and importers to ensure that known infested material is moved out of commerce and is to be destroyed by incineration or deep burial in a landfill in coordination with APHIS.

·                    Continuing investigations of importers and distributors.  Should additional quarantine pests be detected, the scope of the recall may be expanded.

 

Please advise consumers who contact you on this issue to preserve the live insects they detect associated with artificial Christmas trees with wood trunks in commercial products by placing them in plastic bags and freezing them.  Insects intercepted should be turned over to a local agricultural Cooperative Extension Service for identification.

 

A stakeholder announcement and press release will soon be available on the APHIS website.  We welcome cooperation and communication with State Plant Regulatory Officials on this issue.

 



Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 Biovar 2 is Not in Florida - 11/03/2004
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Since PPQ initially identified what was thought to be Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 in geranium samples taken from a greenhouse and pond in Quincy, Florida, in September 2004, further testing by our scientists and collaborators in October have led to the conclusion that it is biovar 1. Therefore, it is not R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, listed in USDA's regulations implementing the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002. Additional testing to determine race is in progress. Race 1 biovar 1 strains of the bacteria are typical in Florida, and have been reported since 1984. APHIS scientists retested cultures isolated from the Quincy establishment in 2002 and identified them as R. solanacearum biovar 1. We are not categorizing it as a quarantine pest. APHIS scientists are collaborating with leading Ralstonia researchers to learn more about the bacteria: to characterize its race, to improve diagnostics, and to devise additional practical disease management guidelines if they are necessary. In 2003 and 2004, R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 was detected in geraniums imported from Kenya and Guatemala. Independent tests confirmed our identification of race 3 biovar 2, without the biovar 1 results scientists obtained with the Quincy samples this year.



Chrysanthemum White Rust (Puccinia horiana P. Henn.) - 10/29/2004
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The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has confirmed the presence of Chrysanthemum White Rust (CWR), Puccinia horiana P. Henn., in nurseries and some residences in Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and New York. 

 

The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA) collected and diagnosed a positive sample on September 17, 2004, from a nursery operation in Chester County, Pennsylvania.  USDA confirmed this diagnosis on September 22, 2004.  Approximately 4,000 plants have been destroyed at the positive Pennsylvania nursery.

 

 Upon the determination of the positive diagnosis, PDA provided the Delaware Department of Agriculture (DDA) trace forward information.   DDA then submitted

22 suspect specimens to USDA for identification which were all confirmed positive for CWR on September 24, 2004.  Five retail nurseries and four private properties in

New Castle County, Delaware, were determined to have infected mums. 

 

On September 24, 2004, the Maryland Department of Agriculture received a suspect CWR infected sample collected at a nursery located in Montgomery County.  The sample was received and confirmed positive by USDA on September 29, 2004. Approximately 1,000 field grown chrysanthemum plants of several varieties have been destroyed at the positive Maryland nursery.

 

On September 27, 2004, the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets detected suspect CWR infected samples from two garden centers in Westchester County, New York. The samples were confirmed on October 5 by USDA and on October 12 by Cornell University at the Long Island Horticultural and Extension Center which is in the National Plant Diagnostic Network.  A total of 771 chrysanthemum plants has been destroyed from both infected garden centers.

 

So far, no connections have been established between the positive CWR finds in Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York and the infected nursery in Maryland.  Trace back and trace forward investigations are in progress, and the National CWR Management Plan for Exclusion and Eradication is being implemented. 

 

CWR, caused by the fungus Puccinia horiana P. Henn., is a quarantine pest for the United States.  The importation of CWR host plants is prohibited from infested countries and regions due to the potential of this organism to be transported with the host plants.

     

When CWR is found in the United States, the States and PPQ cooperate to eradicate it.  CWR is established in Europe, Africa, Australia, Central America, and South America. Disposal of infected plants and weekly fungicide sprays of myclobutanil are required to manage this disease as outlined in the CWR Management Plan for Exclusion and Eradication.  If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Staff Officer Dr. Ved Malik at (301) 734-6774.



Chrysanthemum White Rust (Puccinia horiana P. Henn.) - 10/06/2004
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Chrysanthemum White Rust (CWR), Puccinia horiana P. Henn., has been confirmed in one Pennsylvania nursery on September 17, 2004.  As a result of trace forwards from that nursery, CWR has also been confirmed in one Delaware nursery.

 

A suspect CWR sample was collected and diagnosed positive on September 17 by the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA) from a nursery operation in Chester County, Pennsylvania.  This diagnosis was confirmed by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) on September 22, 2004.  Approximately 800 field grown chrysanthemum plants of several varieties exhibited symptoms at the positive Pennsylvania nursery.  Upon the determination of the positive diagnosis, PDA provided the Delaware Department of Agriculture (DDA) trace forward information.  DDA then sampled and submitted 22 suspect specimens to USDA for identification which were all confirmed positive for CWR on September 24, 2004.  PDA and DDA are following the National CWR Management Plan for Exclusion and Eradication.   

 

CWR, caused by the fungus Puccinia horiana P. Henn., is a quarantine pest for the United States.  The importation of CWR host plants is prohibited from infested countries and regions due to the potential of this organism to be transported with the host plants. When CWR is found in the United States, the States and PPQ cooperate to eradicate it.  CWR originated in eastern Asia.  It is now established in Europe, Africa, Australia, Central America, and South America. There have been past outbreaks in the

United States, but the pest was eradicated in each instance.  Disposal of infected plants and weekly fungicide sprays of myclobutanil are required to manage this disease as outlined in the CWR Management Plan for Exclusion and Eradication.  If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Staff Officer, Dr. Ved Malik at (301) 734-6774.

 



Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 in a Florida Nursery - 10/05/2004
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PPQ has confirmed Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 in geranium samples taken from a greenhouse in Quincy, Florida on September 10, 2004. Subsequent tests of water samples taken from a retention pond also tested positive. APHIS and State officials are collaborating on developing a response plan and are evaluating the methodology and interpretation of past tests conducted at this facility. The plants have now been traced back to Mexico, but it is unclear at this time if Mexico was the actual source of the infestation. No geraniums remain at the facility (1500 have been destroyed), and the facility has been sanitized. None of the geraniums or other plants in the facility was distributed beyond Florida. The facility is currently under a hold order. PPQ is completing additional testing (by PCR) to determine the extent of the infestation. No other nurseries have reported wilted geraniums at this time anywhere in the US. PPQ is convening a science panel to evaluate potential testing and mitigation measures.

Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2 (Rsr3b2) is a bacterial pathogen that causes wilt in geraniums and is highly destructive to potatoes, tomatoes, and a few other solanaceous vegetables. While race 1 of Ralstonia solanacearum is endemic to the United States, Rsr3b2 is not. This strain is cited in USDA’s regulations implementing the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002 Select Agents and Toxins list. APHIS is following select agent communications standard operating procedures.

In 2003 and 2004, APHIS, in cooperation with State departments of agriculture, eradicated the pathogen in geraniums imported from Kenya and Guatemala. Eradication efforts included finding and destroying over 4 million plants (geraniums and additional potentially contaminated plants) in nurseries throughout the United States. Current efforts are focused on strengthening procedures for offshore geranium production through a certification and testing program. It is important to note, however, that the recent and similar detections in geraniums have all appeared as unintentional introductions of the pathogen.



Pine Shoot Beetle (PSB), Tomicus piniperda, Notice of Quarantined Area - 09/30/2004
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This memorandum provides notification, effective immediately, for quarantine of all counties of Vermont for PSB, Tomicus piniperda.

 

This action is authorized by 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) which provides for temporary designation pending publication of a rule to add new areas to the list shown in 7 CFR 301.50-3 (c).  This action is in response to the decision made by the state of Vermont, communicated to APHIS/USDA via letter of July 22, 2004, declaring all Vermont counties as a quarantine area for PSB, Tomicus piniperda.                          

 

The 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) further requires written notification be given to the owner or person(s) in possession of a newly quarantined area.  This is the responsibility of the Federal and State regulatory personnel in charge of the PSB program in the affected state.

 

If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Staff Officer, Weyman Fussell at (301) 734-8247.  For information on the PSB survey and trapping program, please contact your respective State Plant Health Director.

 

We continue to appreciate the cooperative relationship with each state affected by PSB.



Presence of the Swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) in the United States - 09/23/2004
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On September 20, 2004, two Cecidomyiidae specimens from Niagara County,

New York, were confirmed as Contarinia nasturtii (Swede midge).  These males were trapped in experimental pheromone traps that Cornell Cooperative Extension Service is field-trialing in North America with the Swiss Federal Research Station for Horticulture.  These are the first detections in the United States.  The Swede midge has been a known pest of crucifers in Canada since 2000; although, it probably had established in Ontario several years before it was identified.      

 

The Swede midge (also known as the cabbage midge or crown gallfly) is a Eurasian pest of crucifers. "Blind heads" on broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and other crucifers are typical of Swede midge infestation.  Swede midge larvae damage the terminal growing points of crucifers, causing disruption or cessation of growth in these tissues. In older plants, Swede midge larval feeding can cause twisted or missing broccoli or cauliflower heads, split terminals, swollen tissue, and crinkled heart leaves or other distortions.  Plants infested as seedlings produce no marketable yield.  Symptoms may mimic molybdenum deficiency, hormonal herbicide damage, genetic variability, heat stress, and frost damage.  Swede midge damage can resemble other common conditions in these crops, such as mechanical cultivation wounds or feeding by other pests, and leaves a typical “corky” scar. 

 

Adults are 1.5 mm brownish flies similar to the over 60 other Contarinia species in North America.  In Ontario, Swede midge adults emerge continually from the end of May until the middle of September and apparently produce three to five overlapping generations in a season.  The eggs hatch within three days and the larvae live for up to 14 days.  Then they drop to the ground to pupate in the top 5 cm of soil.  New adults emerge approximately 14 days later.  The Swede midge over winters as a larva in the soil; some may stay in the soil for more than one winter making long-term crop rotation important.

 

Swede Midge New Pest Response Guidelines are completed in draft and are due for publication shortly.  A pest alert describing the Swede midge is available on the APHIS website (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/ep/swedemidge.html).  This information is available for dissemination to industry and the public, as well as for use by state regulatory agencies.  APHIS is coordinating with the New York State

                                                                                                                       

Department of Agriculture and Markets to conduct surveys for symptoms and the presence of life stages that may demonstrate establishment, to define the areas that

may be affected by this pest, and to develop an appropriate regulatory response. Current Federal regulations to prevent introduction from Canada restrict the movement of live plants of the family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) and associated soil.

 

 



Pine Shoot Beetle (PSB), Tomicus piniperda, Notice of Quarantined Area - 09/14/2004
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This memorandum provides notification of the temporary designation, effective

immediately, for quarantine of the following additional counties for Tomicus piniperda:

 

Illinois:  Christian, Douglas and Edgar Counties

Indiana: Vigo County

Ohio:  Lawrence and Meigs Counties

Pennsylvania:  Wayne County

Wisconsin:  Dane, Jackson, Lafayette, Sauk and Walworth Counties.

 

This action is in response to recent trapping detections in the indicated counties.  This action is authorized by 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) which provides for temporary designation pending publication of a rule to add the new areas to the list shown in 7 CFR 301.50-3 (c).                                      

 

The 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) further requires written notification be given to the owner or person(s) in possession of a newly quarantined area.  This is the responsibility of the Federal and State regulatory personnel responsible for the PSB program in the affected state.

 

Prior to October 15, 2004, the State Plant Regulatory Officials for the indicated states must confirm the establishment of a parallel quarantine encompassing these counties, or the entire state will be regulated as of that date.  The confirmation should be made in writing to the respective APHIS State Plant Health Director.

 

If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Staff Officer, Weyman Fussell at (301) 734-8247.  For information on the PSB survey and trapping program, please contact your respective State Plant Health Director.

 

We continue to appreciate the cooperative relationship with each state affected by PSB.



Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental Fruit Fly), Quarantine Areas in Los Angeles County, California - 09/07/2004
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On February 16, 2003, APHIS published an Interim Rule (7 CFR 301.93) in the Federal Register for Oriental Fruit Fly (OFF). This rule regulates the artificial spread of this plant pest from moving out of the areas where the pest is established. We have now learned that a county not yet under quarantine has been found to have a detection of a mated female OFF. The pest was detected, confirmed, and reported to us by the California Department of Food and Agriculture from a residential area of Los Angeles on August 30, 2004. The detection was ¼ mile east of Los Angeles International Airport.

Therefore, effective immediately we are imposing a temporary designation of quarantine in this residential area of Los Angeles, California.

This action is authorized by the Plant Protection Act of June 20, 2002, Section 412(a) which authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to prohibit or restrict the movement in interstate commerce of any plant, plant part, or article if the Secretary determines the prohibition or restriction is necessary to prevent the dissemination of a plant pest within the United States. This action is also authorized by 7 CFR 301.93-3(b) which authorizes temporary designation while we proceed toward publishing a rule to add the areas to the quarantined areas listed in 7 CFR 301.93-3(c).

Twelve square miles of this residential area will be treated using the male annihilation technique. Male annihilation bait treatments consist of applying methyl eugenol, naled, and a thickener to 600 to 900 evenly spaced bait stations (trees, telephone poles) per square mile. Treatments will be repeated at two-week intervals for two lifecycles beyond the last fly find. In addition, foliar treatment will be applied from the ground in a 200 meter radius around the detection site.

This action will be reflected in an Interim Rule that we anticipate will soon be published in the Federal Register for public comment in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Procedures Act.



Change in Quarantine Action Status of Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) - 08/25/2004
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This pest report supersedes the pest report posted on August 8, 2004. Additions to the report are in red text.

Eastern flower thrips, Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), are frequently intercepted at the Canadian/Washington border from shipments of cut flowers.  From August through October 2003, surveys in Washington State revealed F. intonsa (Trybom) widespread on  weed species, fruit, flowers, and nursery stock.  Shortly after the detections in Washington State, fall surveys in nurseries in Oregon were positive for the thrips.  Cut flowers from Canada, which are the most common pathway of dispersal, were removed from the “line release” system and were subject to inspection as of October 8, 2003.

 

Subsequently, all States were asked to check their insect collections for specimens of F. intonsa which in certain forms can be confused with the native Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande.  Furthermore, States were asked to report positive and negative results from the survey of collections to the National Agricultural Pest Information System database so that PPQ could determine the extent of the U.S. distribution.  The information was needed to determine whether or not to continue quarantine actions for this pest.  Pending determination, F. intonsa continued as a regulated pest.  Results have not yet been obtained; and at this time F. intonsa has been reported only from Washington and Oregon.

 

Official control is not planned for F. intonsa.  Canadian officials report the existence of an isolated population of F. intonsa in cut flower production sites adjacent to the U.S. border.  The Canadian Government has no plans to control this pest.  Furthermore, viruses vectored by F. intonsa are more effectively vectored by endemic species of thrips, including Western flower thrips.

 

Since F. intonsa is widespread in the Pacific Northwest, not under official, and is less efficient in vectoring certain diseases than a closely related native species no interstate or international quarantine action is required when this pest is found infesting imported commodities presented at ports of entry for USDA inspection.

 

However, as with all plant pests not specifically deregulated through publication in the Federal Register, intentional importation or interstate movement of F. intonsa will continue to require a PPQ Plant Pest Permit.



Recall of Japanese Millet from Australia - 08/13/2004
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The USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine has found that Japanese millet Echinochloa sp. was imported from Australia by Pennington Seed, Inc, Madison, Georgia. Japanese millet, Echinochloa sp. is a close relative of corn, and entry into the United States is prohibited.

Millets, close relatives of corn, are regulated to prevent the entry of exotic plant diseases including Peronospora maydis, Sclerospora sacchari, as well as other downy mildews; and Physoderma zeae-maydis and P. maydis.

Review of import documents has revealed that two containers were held and released in April 2004. One container in July was released without inspection. The seeds from the three containers were distributed in 13 states: Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, and Virginia.

Shipments were manifested as foodstuffs with a tariff code for seeds for sowing. Each container contains about 750, 50-pound bags of seeds. All shipments were accompanied by Australian phytosanitary certificates.

It was reported that some seeds were planted in South Carolina, perhaps in other States as well.

A recall procedure is in progress.



New Jersey Dept. of Agriculture Confirms Presence of Asian Longhorned Beetle - 08/10/2004
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New Jersey Secretary of Agriculture Charles M. Kuperus today confirmed the discovery of an Asian longhorned beetle in Carteret Borough, Middlesex County.

 

A Carteret resident discovered the beetle – which is native to China and capable of causing widespread damage to maple and other hardwood trees – on a tree in his back yard on August 2 and notified authorities. The species of beetle was confirmed on Wednesday, August 4, and further investigation revealed an infested crimson-king maple tree on city property.

 

Asian longhorned beetles have caused serious tree losses in New York State and Chicago, but have been found attacking trees only once before in New Jersey. In October 2002, an area within 1½ miles of a 9-acre site in Jersey City was quarantined to prevent the spread of the insect. More than 100 infested trees at that site were removed to eliminate the beetle.

 

“We have already begun the process of containing this potentially damaging insect and, as we did in Jersey City in 2002, we will take protective measures to ensure that it does not spread to other areas,” said Secretary Kuperus. “These precautions are necessary because this beetle could do devastating damage to Northeast forests if allowed to spread.”

 

Restrictions on the movement of firewood, tree trimmings and nursery products will be instituted in a one-mile radius around the property where the beetle was found, said Carl Schulze, Director of the NJDA’s Division of Plant Industry.

 

“We want to make sure that any wood that may be infested with the beetle does not get moved out of the area,” Schulze said. “Tree climbers will be in the area in the coming days to inspect trees to determine how large this infestation is.”

   

“The Department is working with the USDA to inspect trees within a one-mile radius, looking for signs of the beetle,“ said Secretary Kuperus. “The battle to eradicate the longhorned beetle requires a cooperative approach. Municipal, county, state and federal governments, along with the public, all need to work side by side to eradicate this pest. We are committed to marshalling the same effort in Carteret as we did in Jersey City, and we will reach out to residents to make sure they know what our actions are going to be.” 

 

Asian longhorned beetles are about 1 to 1.5 inches long and have a shiny black exterior with white spots. Their name comes from their long antennae, which are banded black and white. The beetles typically attack one tree, and migrate to others when their populations become too dense.

 

The female beetles chew holes in the bark, where they lay 35 to 90 eggs at a time. The young hatch in 10 to 15 days and are at first white and grub-like. They burrow beneath the tree bark to the cambium layer. After feeding there for several weeks, they enter the woody tissue of the tree. Once the beetle is deep inside the tree, applying pesticides does little to eradicate them. Usually, trees must be cut, chipped or burned to eliminate this pest.  

 

The Department is working with the USDA, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and officials from Carteret and Middlesex County on the containment of the beetle.

 

Asian longhorned beetles were first discovered in the United States in 1996 in the Greenpoint area of Brooklyn, and were found again in 2001 in Manhattan’s Central Park.  USDA officials have determined that they first entered the country inside solid wood packing material coming from China. 

 

Signs of Asian longhorned beetle infestation include:

 

-          Large round holes anywhere on the tree, including branches, trunk and exposed roots

-          Oval or rounded, darkened wounds in the bark

-          Large piles of coarse sawdust around the base of trees or where branches meet the main stem

 

Anyone suspecting the presence of this beetle should contact the NJDA at 1-866-BEETLE-1 or (609) 292-5440. For more information, visit the APHIS Web site at www.aphis.usda.gov and click on Asian longhorned beetle under "Hot Issues."

 



Phytophthora ramorum (sudden oak death, ramorum blight, ramorum die-back): Revision of Associated Articles (nursery stock) - 08/05/2004
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On February 14, 2002, APHIS published an interim rule in the Federal Register for Phytophthora ramorum (7 CFR 301.92).  This rule restricts the movement of certain restricted and regulated articles to prevent the artificial spread interstate of this disease-causing organism from areas where the disease is established.  We have now learned that certain plants require regulating in order to control the artificial spread of this disease. The purpose of this is to provide notification that APHIS is listing four species and de-listed one species as associated articles.

 

In 2002, a researcher in Poland announced that P. ramorum had been identified from Vaccinium vitis-idaea (lingonberry).  After our inquiry, the Plant Protection and Seed Service of Poland recently reported to us that they were unable to validate the report and so they and we consider this report to be unenforceable.  Therefore we are immediately de-listing lingonberry as an associated article.  Also reported was an officially confirmed find of a new plant associated with P. ramorum, Calluna vulgaris - heath (a small woody plant in the Ericaceae).

 

In July 2004, we received notification from the Department of Environment, Forestry, and Rural Affairs that they had officially determined that they have found three new plants associated with P. ramorum.  These are: Drimys winteri - Winter's bark (a small tree in the Winteraceae), Laurus nobilis – Bay Laurel (a small tree in the Lauraceae), and Salix capreaKilmarnock willow (a fast growing small tree in the Salicaceae).

 

 

Therefore, effective immediately, the following are associated regulated articles which will be listed under 7 CFR 301.92 and in PPQ orders restricting the movement of nursery stock to prevent the spread of P. ramorum:

  • Calluna vulgaris - Heath (Ericaceae)
  • Drimys winteri - Winter's bark (Winteraceae)
  • Laurus nobilis - Bay Laurel (Lauraceae)
  • Salix caprea - Kilmarnock willow (Salicaceae)

This action is authorized under the Plant Protection Act, as amended, Section 412(a), which authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to prohibit or restrict the movement in interstate commerce of any plant, plant part, or article, if the Secretary determines the prohibition or restriction is necessary to prevent the dissemination of a plant pest within the United States. 

                                                                                                                                              

This action is also authorized by 7 CFR 301.92-2(b)(2) which designates as restricted articles any other product or article that an inspector determines to present a risk of spreading P. ramorum.  This designation requires the inspector to notify the person in possession of the product or article that it is an associated article.

 

In accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Procedures Act, this action will be published as a regulatory update in the Federal Register for public comment.

 

 



Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) Survey of Insect Collections - 08/05/2004
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This pest report supersedes the pest report posted on July 14, 2004. Additions to the report are in red text.

Numerous Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) Eastern flower thrips have been intercepted at the Canadian/Washington border from shipments of cut flowers.  From August through October 2003, surveys in Washington State discovered F. intonsa on several weed species in King County on red clover in Skagit County on chrysanthemum in Snohomish County, and on sticky traps on raspberry farms in Whatcom County.  Shortly after the detections in Washington State, fall surveys in nurseries in Oregon were positive for the thrips.  Cut flowers, which are the most common pathway of dispersal, were removed from the ‘line release’ system and were subject to inspection as of October 8, 2003. 

 

F. intonsa, a pest of cut flowers and vegetable crops, inhabits most temperate regions of the world including Europe, Asia, Turkey, British Columbia, and Canada.  The first report of F. intonsa in the United States was in Washington State in 1972; however, surveys in the 1990s from the previously documented site were negative.

 

F. intonsa is an efficient vector of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), and can transmit tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV), groundnut ring spot virus (GRSV), and impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) at low efficiencies.  TSWV and INSV are present within the United States.  Although TCSV and GRSV are currently exotic but potential threats to crops, Frankliniella occidentalis, Western flower thrips, an established U.S. species, is a more efficient vector of both viruses. 

 

All states are asked to check their insect collections for specimens of F. intonsa.  Extra care should be given to examine specimens of the closely related Western flower thrips F. occidentalis, which can be easily mistaken for F. intonsa.  

 

States are asked to report positive and negative results from the survey of collections to the National Agricultural Pest Information System Database so that PPQ can determine the extent of the U.S. distribution.  This information is needed in order to determine whether or not to continue regulatory actions for this pest.  Until such a determination is made, F. intonsa will continue to be treated as a regulated pest.  Please communicate findings no later than September 1, 2004, to

Coanne O’Hern (National Survey Coordinator) at (301) 734-4387, or e-mail Coanne.E.O’Hern@aphis.usda.gov.



Pine Shoot Beetle (PSB), Tomicus piniperda, Notice of Quarantined Area - 07/16/2004
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This memorandum provides notification of the temporary designation, effective

immediately, for quarantine of the following additional counties in the state of Pennsylvania:  Union, Snyder, Sullivan.  This action is in response to the recent trapping detection in the indicated counties.  This action is authorized by 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) which provides for temporary designation pending publication of a rule to add the new areas to the list shown in 7 CFR 301.50-3 (c).                                      

 

The 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) further requires written notification be given to the owner or person(s) in possession of a newly quarantined area.  This is the responsibility of the Federal and/or State regulatory personnel responsible for the PSB program in the affected state.

 

Prior to September 1, 2004, the state of Pennsylvania must confirm the establishment of a parallel quarantine encompassing these counties, or the entire state will be regulated as of that date.  The confirmation should be made in writing to the APHIS State Plant Health Director.

 

If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Staff Officer Weyman Fussell at (301) 734-8247.  For information on the PSB survey and trapping program, please contact your respective State Plant Health Director.

 

We continue to appreciate the cooperative relationship with each state affected by PSB.

 



Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) found in Washington and Oregon - 07/14/2004
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Numerous Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) have been intercepted at the Canadian/Washington border from shipments of cut flowers.  From August through October 2003, surveys in Washington State discovered F. intonsa on several weed species in King County, on red clover in Skagit County, on chrysanthemum in Snohomish County, and on sticky traps on raspberry farms in Whatcom County.  Shortly after the surveys in Washington State, fall surveys in nurseries in Oregon were positive for the thrips (later verified by SEL). 

 

Frankliniella intonsa, a pest of cut flowers and vegetable crops, inhabits most temperate regions of the world including Europe, Asia, Turkey, and British Columbia, Canada.  The first report of F. intonsa in the United States was in Washington State in 1972; however, surveys in the 1990s from the previously documented site were negative.

 

Frankliniella intonsa is an efficient vector of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), and can transmit tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV), groundnut ring spot virus (GRSV), and impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) at low efficiencies.  TSWV and INSV are present within the United States.  Although TCSV and GRSV are currently exotic but potential threats to crops, Frankiliniella occidentalis, an established species, is a more efficient vector of both viruses. 

 

Cut flowers, which are the most common pathway of dispersal, were removed from the ‘line release’ system as of October 8, 2003.  States are urged to check their collections for specimens of F. intonsa.  Extra care should be given to check the closely related Western flower thrips F. occidentalis, which can be easily mistaken for F. intonsa. 



Recall of “Rustic Twig Towers” from China - 07/07/2004
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USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) officers found live insect larvae in a product known as “Rustic Twig Tower” imported from China by McCann Bros. of Bridgeport, CT for White Flower Farm. The initial find was made in Wisconsin by a concerned consumer who purchased this product. The insect was identified as Cerambycidae: Lamiinae sp. --a long-horned beetle.

In addition to this infestation, a consumer in Florida also reported finding insect larvae in the same product. This product contained numerous insect larvae that were identified as Cerambycidae: Callidiellum sp., another exotic long-horned beetle.

USDA/APHIS is very concerned about the introduction of these two insect pests into the United States. Cerambycidae: Lamiinae sp. is known to infest hardwood trees. Cerambycidae: Callidiellum sp. is known to infest softwood trees such as sequoia, bald cypress, and other similar species. On June 21, we asked White Flower Farm to initiate a recall of this product within 48 hours.

Upon receiving our recall request White Flower Farm began contacting its customers to inform them of the “Rustic Twig Tower” recall. When contacted by the consumer, our State Plant Health directors will make arrangements to examine and remove the product from the customer’s premises. We anticipate a high degree of cooperation from purchasers of this product. The retailer has offered to provide a credit to customers who surrender their items to USDA. Should such cooperation not be forthcoming, we are prepared to utilize other legal mechanisms to mitigate any potential plant pest risk.

We have contacted the importer, McCann Bros., to ensure that this or similar products which may be infested, have not been distributed elsewhere in the United States.

If you have any questions regarding this matter, please contact Ross Nichols, Staff Officer at (301) 734-5394.

Pine Shoot Beetle (PSB), Tomicus piniperda, Notice of Quarantined Area - 07/06/2004
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This memorandum provides notification of the temporary designation, effective immediately, for quarantine of the following additional counties in the state of New York: Clinton, Essex, Rensselaer, Warren, and Washington. This action is in response to recent trapping detection in the indicated counties. This action is authorized by 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) which provides for temporary designation pending publication of a rule to add the new areas to the list shown in 7 CFR 301.50-3 (c).

The 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) further requires written notification be given to the owner or person(s) in possession of a newly quarantined area. This is the responsibility of the Federal and/or State regulatory personnel responsible for the PSB program in the affected State.

Prior to September 1, 2004, the state of New York must confirm the establishment of a parallel quarantine encompassing these counties, or the entire state will be regulated as of that date. The confirmation should be made in writing to the APHIS State Plant Health Director.

If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Staff Officer Weyman Fussell at (301) 734-8247. For information on the PSB survey and trapping program, please contact your respective State Plant Health Director.

We continue to appreciate the cooperative relationship with each state affected by PSB.

Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental Fruit Fly), Quarantine areas in California-Orange County - 07/06/2004
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On February 16, 2003, APHIS published an Interim rule (7 CFR 301.93) in the Federal Register for Oriental Fruit Fly (OFF). This rule regulates the artificial spread of this plant pest from moving out of the areas where the pest is established. We have now learned that a county not yet under quarantine has been found to have several detections of OFF. The pest was first detected, confirmed and reported to us by the California Department of Agriculture from a residential area of Santa Ana, Orange County on June 28, 2004. A total of nine male and two unmated female OFF detections were confirmed in the area. The last detection was on July 2, 2004.

Therefore, effective immediately, we are imposing a temporary designation of quarantine in this residential area.

This action is authorized by the Plant Protection Act of June 20, 2002, Section 412(a) which authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to prohibit or restrict the movement in interstate commerce of any plant, plant part, or article if the Secretary determines the prohibition or restriction is necessary to prevent the dissemination of a plant pest within the United States. This action is also authorized by 7 CFR 301.93-3(b) which authorizes temporary designation while we proceed toward publishing a rule to add the areas to the list of quarantined areas listed in 7 CFR 301.93-3(c).

Ten square miles of this residential area will be treated using the male annihilation technique. Male annihilation bait treatments consist of applying methyl eugenol, Naled, and a thickener to 600 evenly-spaced bait stations (trees, telephone poles) per square mile. Treatments will be repeated at two-week intervals for two lifecycles beyond the last fly find.

This action will be reflected in an interim rule that we anticipate will soon be published in the Federal Register for public comment in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Procedures Act.

Phytophthora ramorum (sudden oak death, ramorum blight, ramorum die-back); Expansion of Regulated Host Plants - 06/23/2004
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On February 14, 2002, APHIS published an interim rule in the Federal Register for Phytophthora ramorum (7 CFR 301.92). This rule restricts the movement of certain restricted and regulated articles to prevent the artificial spread interstate of this disease-causing organism from areas where the disease is established. We have now learned that certain plants require regulating in order to control the artificial spread of this disease. The purpose of this is to provide notification that APHIS is listing the genus Camellia as regulated host plants.

The below listed Camellias were found in nurseries during APHIS survey activities. All were confirmed positive by APHIS for P. ramorum by APHIS either by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and/or by morphological identification of a culture.

These seven species of Camellia:
Camellia hiemalis
Camellia kissi
Camellia lutchuensis
Camellia oleifera
Camellia saluenensis
Camellia sinensis
Camellia vernalis

These eighteen hybrids of Camellia:
Camellia japonica x Camellia lutchuensis
Camellia japonica x Camellia oleifera
Camellia japonica x Camellia sasanqua
Camellia lutchuensis x Camellia japonica
Camellia oleifera x Camellia hiemalis
Camellia oleifera x Camellia hiemalis x Camellia vernalis
Camellia pitardii var. pitardii x Camellia japonica
Camellia reticulata x Camellia japonica
Camellia reticulata x Camellia saluenensis x Camellia pitardii var. yunnanica
Camellia sasanqua x Camellia oleifera
Camellia sasanqua x Camellia hiemalis x Camellia oleifera
Camellia x japonica
Camellia x kissi
Camellia x lutchuenis
Camellia x oleifera
Camellia x reticulata
Camellia x saluenensis
Camellia x williamsii x C. oleifera

Including the three species and one hybrid already under regulation, PPQ has found 10 species and 19 hybrids of Camellia that P. ramorum infects. To ensure appropriate and effective inspection in quarantine areas and regulated nurseries and to mitigate the risk of spread of P. ramorum, we will now regulate Camellia at the genus level. This will be added to the “APHIS List of Host and Associated Plants” as a “host plant.”

Therefore, effective immediately, the following is a regulated article under 7 CFR 301.92 and PPQ orders restricting the movement of nursery stock to prevent the spread of P. ramorum:
Camellia spp. (Camellia, includes all species, hybrids and cultivars)


This action is authorized under the Plant Protection Act, as amended, Section 412(a), which authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to prohibit or restrict the movement in interstate commerce of any plant, plant part, or article, if the Secretary determines the prohibition or restriction is necessary to prevent the dissemination of a plant pest within the United States.

This action is also authorized by 7 CFR 301.92-2(b)(2) which designates as restricted articles any other product or article that an inspector determines to present a risk of spreading P. ramorum. This designation requires the inspector to notify the person in possession of the product or article that it is a regulated article.

In accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Procedures Act, this action will be published as a regulatory update in the Federal Register for public comment.

Phytophthora ramorum (sudden oak death, ramorum blight, ramorum die-back): Expansion of Associated Articles (nursery stock) - 06/23/2004
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On February 14, 2002, APHIS published an interim rule in the Federal Register for Phytophthora ramorum (7 CFR 301.92). This rule restricts the movement of certain restricted and regulated articles to prevent the artificial spread interstate of this disease-causing organism from areas where the disease is established. We have now learned that certain plants require regulating in order to control the artificial spread of this disease. The purpose of this is to provide notification that APHIS is listing four species as associated articles.

In May 2004, a University researcher announced that P. ramorum had been isolated and identified from a lily, a fern, and a yew found in a native setting in California. In June 2004, another University researcher reported the isolation of P. ramorum from a single plant of a perennial herb, another lily, found in a native setting in California. As these four plant species have not had Koch’s postulates completed, they have been added to the “APHIS List of Host and Associated Plants” as “associated plants.” These are to be treated as “associated articles” when applying the APHIS issued orders restricting movement of nursery stock.

Therefore, effective immediately, the following are associated regulated articles which will be listed under 7 CFR 301.92 and in PPQ orders restricting the movement of nursery stock to prevent the spread of P. ramorum:
Clintonia andrewsiana (Andrew’s clintonia bead lily)
Dryopteris arguta (California wood fern)
Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon’s seal)
Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew)

This action is authorized under the Plant Protection Act, as amended, Section 412(a), which authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to prohibit or restrict the movement in interstate commerce of any plant, plant part, or article, if the Secretary determines the prohibition or restriction is necessary to prevent the dissemination of a plant pest within the United States.

This action is also authorized by 7 CFR 301.92-2(b)(2) which designates as restricted articles any other product or article that an inspector determines to present a risk of spreading P. ramorum. This designation requires the inspector to notify the person in possession of the product or article that it is an associated article.

In accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Procedures Act, this action will be published as a regulatory update in the Federal Register for public comment.

New Golden Nematode (GN), Globodera rostochiensis, Detection in New York - 06/09/2004
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There has been a new detection of Golden Nematode (GN), Globodera rostochiensis, that was confirmed by Dr. Zafar Handoo, USDA-ARS Nematologist in Beltsville, Maryland. The detection was on a 114.7 acre potato field located in Cayuga County, New York, near the town of Port Byron, one half mile outside the existing GN quarantine area.

The detection was made on a field operated by a grower who has multiple potato production fields located both within and outside the GN quarantine area. The land farmed within the GN quarantine is managed in accordance with the regulations. Since the new GN detection is in a field located outside the existing quarantined area, APHIS is taking necessary steps to add this field to the regulated area.

GN was first discovered in the United States in 1941 when it was found to be responsible for serious crop damage in a potato field on Long Island, New York. Because of an effective State-Federal quarantine which has been in existence for over 50 years, GN remains confined to portions of nine counties within the State of New York.

Pine Shoot Beetle (PSB), Tomicus piniperda, Notice of Quarantined Area - 04/02/2004
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This memorandum provides notification of the temporary designation, effective April 15, 2004, for quarantine of Franklin County in the state of New York. This action is in response to recent trapping detection in the indicated county. This action is authorized by 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) which provides for temporary designation, pending publication of a rule to add the new areas to the list shown in 7 CFR 301.50-3 (c).

The 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) further requires written notification be given to the owner or person(s) in possession of a newly quarantined area. This is the responsibility of the Federal and/or state regulatory personnel responsible for the PSB Program in the affected state.

Prior to April 15, the state of New York must confirm the establishment of a parallel quarantine encompassing Franklin County, or the entire state will be regulated as of that date. The confirmation should be made in writing to the APHIS State Plant Health Director.

If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Staff Officer Weyman Fussell at (301) 734-8247. For information on the PSB survey and trapping program, please contact your respective State Plant Health Director.

We continue to appreciate the cooperative relationship with each state affected by PSB.

Imported Fire Ant (IFA) Quarantine Program Manual - 04/02/2004
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A program manual for the IFA Quarantine is now available online at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/manuals/pdf_files/Fire_Ant.pdf. This represents the first revision of the manual since 1985 and reflects the considerable changes that have been made to the IFA Quarantine since that time. The authority for taking regulatory actions for IFA is contained in 7 CFR 301.81-1 through 301.81-10.

The manual is for use by state and Federal Regulatory Officials interested in preventing the artificial spread of IFA from infested to uninfected areas. The manual will prepare Regulatory Officials to:

• Perform accurate surveys for IFA along the leading edge of infestation
• Determine the interstate movement (entry) status of regulated and nonregulated articles
• Provide current treatment information and facilitate the movement of IFA-free nursery stock from regulated to non-regulated areas
• Take regulatory action when a detection of IFA is found

The manual was produced by the APHIS’ PPQ Manuals Unit with assistance from the many APHIS and state personnel associated with the IFA Quarantine. While every attempt has been made to make the manual accurate and comprehensive, it is recognized that some parts of the manual will be more fully developed in future versions. The online availability of this manual will allow for changes to be made as the need arises while allowing for the complete and rapid access to this information by Regulatory Officials.

Sudden Oak Death Syndrome in California Nurseries - 03/17/2004
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Phytophthora ramorum, the causative organism in Sudden Oak Death Syndrome (SODS), was confirmed in Monrovia Nursery in Azusa, California (Los Angeles County) on Monday, March 8, 2004. On March 12, 2004, SODS was confirmed from samples taken at Specialty Plants Inc., San Marcos, California (San Diego County). The samples at both nurseries were collected as part of the PPQ National Survey. The California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) Plant Pathology laboratory confirmed P. ramorum.

The nursery in Los Angeles County is a 500-acre facility which has seven other satellite nurseries throughout the United States and ships millions of plants every year all over the United States. The nursery was quarantined by CDFA on March 9, 2004. We are in the process of obtaining information about the San Diego site.

The presence of P. ramorum was unexpected because these nurseries are not in the regulated area near any source of known infection, and the area is situated in a dry climate (previous detections of the organism have been confined to areas with a wet environment).

Actions are underway for conducting trace back and trace forward of infected material as well as procedures for mitigating the effects of the disease in susceptible material are being weighed and options developed. Additional information will be forthcoming as options are more clearly defined.

Absence of Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid (PSTVd) in the United States - 03/04/2004
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At the Certification Section meeting of the Potato Association of America held in Seattle on December 2, 1998, seed potato certification personnel reported an absence of PSTVd in seed potato stocks for the past 10 years. However, the North American Plant Protection Organization continues listing PSTVd as an A-2 Quarantine pest in North America. In addition, many seed-importing countries continue to require the United States to test potato seed crops to ensure freedom from PSTVd.

Based on this information, fourteen U.S. seed potato certification agencies (Alaska, California, Colorado, Idaho, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, Washington, and Wisconsin) surveyed all U.S. seed potato growing areas for the presence of PSTVd. The survey included general surveillance which involved searching for the occurrence of PSTVd in state seed potato certification records from 1990 through 2000, and a specific field survey which involved testing selected crops for PSTVd infection by nucleic acid dot blot hybridization during 1999-2001. No PSTVd incidents were documented in any of the state certification records, nor were PSTVd’s detected in the field surveys.

U.S. seed potato certification agencies routinely test seed potato stocks for PSTVd at a number of certification levels starting with pre-nuclear in tissue culture, continuing with field-increased seed generations during the growing season and ending with post-harvest grow-out plots. Based on these surveys, PSTVd has been determined not to be present in any of the seed potato growing areas of United States.



Gypsy Moth (GM), Lymantria dispar, Notice of Quarantined Areas - 02/11/2004
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The purpose of this pest report is to notify you of the temporary designation, effective March 1, 2004, for the addition of Hocking County Ohio as a quarantined area. This action is in response to trapping detections in the indicated county. This action is authorized by 7 CFR 301.45-2 (c) which provides for temporary designation pending publication of a rule to add the new areas to the list shown in 7 CFR 301.45-3 (a). The 7 CFR 301.45-2 (c) further requires written notification be given to the owner or person in possession of a newly quarantined area. This is the responsibility of the Federal and/or State regulatory personnel responsible for the Gypsy Moth program in the affected State.

The State of Ohio must confirm prior to March 1 the establishment of a parallel quarantine, or the entire State will be regulated as of that date. The confirmation should be made in writing to the APHIS State Plant Health Director.

If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact the staff officer, Weyman Fussell at (301) 734-5705. For information on the GM survey and trapping program, please contact your State Plant Health Director.

We continue to appreciate the cooperative relationship with the State of Ohio in our effort to prevent the spread of GM.

Recall of Various Products Containing Pine Cones from India - 02/10/2004
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This pest report supersedes the pest report posted on December 12, 2003.

APHIS inspectors have made numerous detections of the significant quarantine pest, Chlorophorus strobilicola (Cerambycidae) in pine cones imported from India. The infested pine cones have been found in a number of different stores throughout the United States in a number of different products, including potpourri mixes and holiday decorations.

In response, APHIS has taken the following actions:

•Issued a national recall of all products found with pine cone from India using UPC codes as the basis of identifying products for recall; updated UPC codes are listed on the USDA website:
http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/news/2003/12/pinecones_ppq.html .
•Invoked emergency restrictions, requiring mandatory fumigation with methyl bromide for all pine cones from India entering U.S. Ports of Entry. Products packaged in impermeable wrappers will be refused entry unless they are removed from packaging to allow effective treatment; and
•Issued Emergency Action Notifications to stores and importers to ensure that known infested material is moved out of commerce and is destroyed or treated.

APHIS will also continue to:

•Conduct investigations of importers and distributors and marketplace inspections to identify additional products with Indian pine cones and
•Contact the National Plant Protection Organization of India to identify exporters of pine cones to encourage compliance.

In coordination with APHIS, recalled product can be destroyed by incineration or deep landfill. APHIS supervised fumigation with methyl bromide may be an option if APHIS determines that an effective treatment is possible, based on the packaging and state of the product.

We continue to appreciate the cooperation of State officials in locating any remaining infested products in the marketplace. Please advise consumers who contact you on this issue to destroy live insects detected with pine cones in commercial products. If they have any doubts about whether a product they purchased is involved in the recall, we encourage them to “double-bag” and dispose of it as household trash.

The stakeholder announcement and press release are available on the APHIS website. This site also includes the list of UPC codes of the products that have been recalled. We expect that UPC codes of additional products will be added to our list in the future, due to the ongoing investigation. We welcome cooperation and communication with State Plant Regulatory Officials on this issue.

Gypsy Moth (GM), Lymantria dispar, Notice of Quarantined Areas - 01/28/2004
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The purpose of this memorandum is to notify you of the temporary designation, effective February 15, for seven additional counties in Wisconsin as quarantined areas. This action is in response to recent trapping detections in the indicated counties. This action is authorized by 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) which provides for temporary designation pending publication of a rule to add the new areas to the list shown in 7 CFR 301.50-3 (c). The 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) further requires written notification be given to the owner or person in possession of a newly quarantined area. This is the responsibility of the Federal and/or State regulatory personnel responsible for the GM program in the affected State.

The counties in the State of Wisconsin affected under this action are:

·Adams
·Dane
·Lincoln Marathon
·Marquette
·Oneida
·Vilas

The State of Wisconsin must confirm prior to February 15 the establishment of a parallel quarantine, or the entire State will be regulated as of that date. The confirmation should be made in writing to the APHIS State Plant Health Director.

For more information on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Weyman Fussell, Staff Officer, at (301) 734-5705. For information on the GM survey and trapping program, please contact your State Plant Health Director.

We continue to appreciate the cooperative relationship with each State affected by GM.

Phytophthora ramorum (sudden oak death, ramorum blight, ramorum die-back); Expansion of Listed Regulated Articles--California and Oregon - 01/09/2004
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On February 14, 2002, the APHIS published an interim rule (7 CFR 301.92) in the Federal Register for Phytophthora ramorum. This rule regulates the artificial spread of this disease-causing organism from moving out of the counties where the disease is established. We have now learned that certain plant parts of certain additional hosts require regulating in order to control the artificial spread of this disease.

Researchers in Oregon and the United Kingdom have identified six new host species of Phytophthora ramorum. Five of the new species were found in a nursery setting in Oregon. The other new species (witch-hazel) was found in an established planting in a large public garden in the United Kingdom.

These new hosts are:
· Camellia sasanqua (sasanqua camellia), member of the Theaceae
· Pieris formosa x japonica (Pieris ‘Forest Flame’), member of the Ericaceae
· Pieris floribunda x japonica (Pieris ‘Brouwer’s Beauty’), member of the Ericaceae
· Pieris japonica (Japanese Pieris) a member of the Ericaceae
· Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum (Doublefile viburnum), member of the Caprifoliaceae
· Hamamelis virginiana (witch-hazel), member of the Hamamelidaceae

Therefore, effective immediately, the following are restricted articles under 7 CFR 301.92:
· Camellia sasanqua (nursery stock and leaves)
· Pieris formosa x japonica (nursery stock, twigs, and leaves)
· Pieris floribunda x japonica (nursery stock, twigs and leaves)
· Pieris japonica (nursery stock, twigs, and leaves)
· Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum (nursery stock and all plant parts except seeds)
· Hamamelis virginiana (nursery stock, twigs, and leaves)

This action is authorized under the Plant Protection Act of June 20, 2002, Section 412(a), which authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to prohibit or restrict the movement in interstate commerce of any plant, plant part, or article, if the Secretary determines the prohibition or restriction is necessary to prevent the dissemination of a plant pest within the United States.

This action is also authorized by 7 CFR 301.92-2(b)(2) which designates as restricted articles any other product or article that an inspector determines to present a risk of spreading Phytophthora ramorum. This designation requires the inspector to notify the person in possession of the product or article that it is a restricted article.

In accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Procedures Act, this action will be published as a regulatory update in the Federal Register for public comment.

Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 in New York Greenhouse - 01/05/2004
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The Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) Center for Plant Health Science and Technology laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland, confirmed Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 in geraniums from one commercial greenhouse in New York State, in rooted cuttings of the Americana Coral variety on December 31, 2003, and in direct-ship material of the Americana Bright Red variety on January 2, 2004. The greenhouse had received both varieties in infected propagative material from the Goldsmith Plants, Inc. facilities in Guatemala. The rooted plants were received via Glass Corners Greenhouse in Michigan, where this pathogen was eradicated earlier in 2003; however, the New York State greenhouse was not implicated earlier in 2003. Between January and May 2003, geraniums infected with this bacterium caused the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) to place holds on 921 greenhouses in 47 States, resulting in the finding of the bacterium and destruction of close to two million plants (mostly geraniums) in 127 facilities.

Goldsmith Plants Inc. has voluntarily quarantined all of its greenhouses in Guatemala and suspended shipments of geranium cuttings from the Goldsmith facility. APHIS is in the process of notifying Guatemala that further importations of geranium cuttings from the facility will be prohibited until further notice. APHIS is planning to inspect the facility and prescribe remediation measures prior to allowing importations to resume. Hold orders also have been placed on geraniums at Glass Corners Greenhouse and the New York State greenhouse until suspect plants are destroyed and the greenhouses disinfected.

Approximately 300-400 customers have already received geraniums of the suspect varieties from Goldsmith's facility in Guatemala this growing season. APHIS, in cooperation with State Departments of Agriculture, are notifying customers and assuring appropriate actions are taken to destroy suspect plants and disinfect facilities. The distributor is offering to reimburse greenhouse owners for the two varieties mentioned above, as well as Cherry Rose II, which was also produced in the same Guatemalan facility. PPQ believes these actions will allow geranium producers to be back in business as soon as the shipments are located and destroyed.

Recall of Ya Pears from China - 12/19/2003
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APHIS inspectors have made numerous detections of a quarantine significant disease, Alternaria sp. on commercial shipments of Ya pears from China. This disease, which has only recently been described by USDA scientists, is considered economically significant and is not present in the United States. Infested fruit has been found in marketplaces in a number of States.

In response, APHIS is taking the following actions:

• Issuing a National Emergency Action Notification to recall all Ya pears from China in commerce in the United States;
• Prohibiting new shipments from making entry into the United States; and
• Working in conjunction with State cooperators to ensure that all Ya pears are taken out of commerce.

In coordination with APHIS, recalled product can be destroyed by incineration or deep landfill after freezing for 24 hours. Recall Procedures:

• Wholesale distributors will stop distribution of all Ya pears from China to retailers.
• Large retailers may return Ya pears to their distribution centers for destruction. The fruit will be placed in double plastic bags, frozen for 24 hours and disposed in trash destined for a landfill.
• Small retailers should double bag the fruit. Freeze it for 24 hours, if possible. The fruit can then be disposed in trash destined for a landfill.

We continue to appreciate the cooperation of State officials in locating any remaining infested products in the marketplace. Please advise consumers who contact you on this issue to double (plastic) bag any Ya pears from China and dispose in trash destined for landfill.

Information will soon be available on the APHIS website under “Hot Issues.”

Recall of Various Products Containing Pine Cones from India - 12/12/2003
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APHIS inspectors have made numerous detections of two significant quarantine pests, Chlorophorus strobilicola (Cerambycidae) and Cydia sp. (Tortricidae) in pine cones imported from India. The infested pine cones have been found in a number of different stores throughout the United States in a number of different products, including potpourri mixes and holiday decorations.

In response, APHIS has taken the following actions:
• Issued a national recall of all products found to be infested using UPC codes as the basis of identifying products for recall;
• Invoked emergency restrictions, requiring mandatory fumigation with methyl bromide for all pine cones from India entering U.S. Ports of Entry. Products packaged in impermeable wrappers will be refused entry unless they are removed from packaging to allow effective treatment; and
• Issued Emergency Action Notifications to stores and importers to ensure that known infested material is moved out of commerce and is destroyed or treated.

APHIS will also continue to:
• Conduct investigations of importers and distributors and marketplace inspections to identify additional products with Indian pine cones and
• Contact the National Plant Protection Organization of India to identify exporters of pine cones to encourage compliance.

In coordination with APHIS, recalled product can be destroyed by incineration or deep landfill. APHIS supervised fumigation may be an option if APHIS determines that an effective treatment is possible, based on the packaging and state of the product.

We continue to appreciate the cooperation of State officials in locating any remaining infested products in the marketplace. Please advise consumers who contact you on this issue to destroy live insects detected with pine cones in commercial products. If they have any doubts about whether a product they purchased is involved in the recall, we encourage them to “double-bag” and dispose of it as household trash.

A stakeholder announcement and press release is available on the APHIS website. This site will also include the list of UPC codes of the products that have been recalled. Because this is an ongoing investigation we expect that UPC codes of additional products will be added to our list in the future. We welcome cooperation and communication with State Plant Regulatory Officials on this issue.

Alert for Trade in Achatina spp., Giant African Snails, as Pets - 11/14/2003
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In recent days, APHIS inspectors have seized almost 100 specimens of Achatina fulica, Giant African Snails, in commercial pet stores and from a private breeder in Wisconsin. Initial Internet searches have indicated that there may be significant private ownership of Giant African Snails resulting in the sale of the snails by commercial businesses and private citizens. There are reports that these snails may also be available at exotic animal shows and “swap meets.” Presently, the pest is only known to be established in Hawaii. Possession of this snail is ILLEGAL in the continental United States.

Giant African Snails, Achatina achatina (L.), Achatina fulica Bowdich, and other species in the family Achatinidae (Gastropoda), are large, terrestrial snails of African origin that cause extensive damage to plants in tropical and subtropical agricultural systems and the environment. These snails also carry serious diseases which can affect humans, including Angiostrongylus cantonensis and, potentially, A. costaricensis. These diseases can be contracted by ingesting improperly cooked snail meat, or by handling live snails and transferring the snail mucus to human mucus membranes (eyes, nose, and mouth). Snails should be handled carefully with latex gloves. Shells of mature Giant African Snails are brown in color with darker, irregular, longitudinal marks and attain lengths of nearly eight inches (20 cm) and widths of almost four inches (10 cm). Eggs are ovate, average an inch or more in length, creamy white to yellow in color and may have brown blotches. Species in this group inhabit many African countries; Indo-Pacific areas including Hawaii, Brazil; and parts of the Caribbean Basin including Barbados, St. Lucia, Martinique, and Guadeloupe. Like other exotic land snails, Giant African Snails may enter the United States as hitchhikers on imported cargo. However, PPQ has intercepted these pests more frequently at airports from arriving international travelers who may consume the snails as meat or folk medicine, or who want to keep them as pets.

APHIS malacology specialists recommend the following methods for destroying seized adult and juvenile snails and their eggs:
• Put deep freezer (-10 o C) for three days
• Boil
• Immerse in alcohol (rubbing alcohol or ethanol)

Collect and incinerate or autoclave all soil and debris from terrariums holding Giant African Snails. Disinfect tanks with alcohol or full strength bleach.

A pest alert and documents describing these snails are being prepared for dissemination to industry and the public. APHIS personnel are actively investigating sources and owners of Giant African Snails and will continue to seize and destroy all available specimens. We welcome cooperation and communication with State Plant Regulatory Officials on this issue.

Oriental Fruit Fly (OFF) (Bactrocera dorsalis) in California - 11/04/2003
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Between September 23 and October 23, 2003, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) captured in excess of 9 adult OFF’s (Bactrocera dorsalis) in the Ontario area of San Bernardino County, California. The detection of numerous adult OFF’s is an indication of an incipient infestation in San Bernardino County. We are amending the Federal OFF regulations to include an area of San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties because an OFF infestation was declared by CDFA on October 27, 2003. According to USDA eradication protocols and procedures, detection of two OFF’s within three and one half mile radius triggers a series of bait (methyl eugenol mixed with a small amount of insecticide) station treatments. In addition, detections in urban areas in excess of eight OFF’s within a three mile radius require regulatory action to prevent the movement of host material out of the quarantine area. The present infestation is limited to approximately 137 square miles surrounding the OFF infestation in the Ontario area of San Bernardino that includes a small portion of Los Angeles County (Pomona).

A Proclamation of Eradication was issued by CDFA on October 7, 2003, for a treatment area of 13 square miles. An addendum to the Proclamation was issued on October 20, 2003, expanding the treatment area to include areas of additional OFF detections. According to eradication protocol, Jackson and McPhail trap density was increased to 25 per square mile in the core area. The area around each find will be treated according to male annihilation treatment protocol every two weeks for two life cycles, about 60 days, beyond the last OFF find. A visual survey of fruit fly host materials is being conducted to detect the presence of OFF larvae. If larvae are found, foliage of host plants will be treated with malathion bait spray on infested and adjacent properties. Fruit stripping and soil drenches with diazinon will take place on infested and adjacent properties.

The infestation represents a threat to the agriculture and the environment of California and other U.S. citrus-producing States. APHIS is cooperating with CDFA in delimiting survey, treatment applications, regulation, and environmental monitoring.

A program specific to the OFF Cooperative Program Environmental Assessment for the regulated area in San Bernardino County, California, has been completed and is available from local program managers or from the APHIS web page.

Pine Shoot Beetle (PSB), Tomicus piniperda, Notice of Additional Quarantined Area in Illinois - 10/20/2003
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This memorandum provides notification of the temporary designation of one additional quarantined county in Illinois. This action is in response to recent trapping detection in the indicated county. This action is authorized by 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) which provides for temporary designation pending publication of a rule to add the new areas to the list shown in 7 CFR 301.50-3 (c).

The 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) further requires written notification be given to the owner or person in possession of a newly quarantined area. This is the responsibility of the Federal and/or State regulatory personnel responsible for the PSB program in the affected State.

The county affected under this action is Peoria.

Prior to December 1, 2003, the State of Illinois must confirm the establishment of a parallel quarantine or the entire State will be regulated as of that date. The confirmation should be made in writing to Plant Protection and Quarantine’s State Plant Health Director.

If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Staff Officer Weyman Fussell at (301) 734-8247. For information on the PSB survey and trapping program, please contact your respective State Plant Health Director.

The USDA continues to appreciate the cooperative relationship with each State affected by PSB.

Rescinding of Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens) quarantine in California - 10/02/2003
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The California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), USDA, and the San Diego Agriculture Commission have completed the eradication of the Mexican fruit fly (MFF) and lifted the local quarantine in the Valley Center area of San Diego County.

The last wild MFF detection in the eradication area occurred on May 20, 2003. Based on the MFF eradication project life-cycle projection model, completion of the third generation of the first MFF find was September 20, 2003. On September 23, 2003, the project discontinued eradication efforts and lifted regulatory constraints. APHIS started parallel activities to lift the Federal quarantine on September 29, 2003.

The infestation was first detected on November 21, 2002, and the quarantine declared on December 5, 2002, for the Valley Center and surrounding areas of San Diego County. For the first time in a California fruit fly eradication program, the environmentally benign pesticide, Spinosad, was used. The organic formulation, GF120 NF, was available for use in the eradication project, thus protecting the organically grown status of host materials in the eradication area. The pesticide treatment regimen was followed by releases of sterile MFF and a period of intensive trapping according to State and Federal protocol.

During the quarantine, host material was not allowed to leave the regulated area unless certified. If left untreated, the infestation would have threatened fruit crops worth more than $75 million annually.

Pine Shoot Beetle (PSB), Tomicus piniperda, Notice of Quarantined Areas - 10/02/2003
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This memorandum provides notification of the temporary designation effective November 15, 2003, of additional quarantined counties in Illinois. This action is in response to recent trapping detections in the indicated counties. This action is authorized by 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) which provides for temporary designation pending publication of a rule to add the new areas to the list shown in 7 CFR 301.50-3 (c).

The 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) further requires written notification be given to the owner or person in possession of a newly quarantined area. This is the responsibility of the Federal and/or State regulatory personnel responsible for the PSB program in the affected State.

The counties affected under this action are: Carroll, Ford, Henry, Mason.

Prior to November 15, the State of Illinois must confirm the establishment of a parallel quarantine or the entire State will be regulated as of that date. The confirmation should be made in writing to the Plant Protection and Quarantine State Plant Health Director.

If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Staff Officer Weyman Fussell at (301) 734-8247. For information on the PSB survey and trapping program, please contact your respective State Plant Health Director.

We continue to appreciate the cooperative relationship with each State affected by PSB.

Pine Shoot Beetle (PSB), Tomicus piniperda, Notice of Quarantined Areas - 07/15/2003
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This memorandum provides notification of the temporary designation effective September 1, 2003, of additional quarantined counties in six States. This action is in response to recent trapping detections in the indicated counties. This action is authorized by 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) which provides for temporary designation pending publication of a rule to add the new areas to the list shown in 7 CFR 301.50-3 (c). The 7 CFR 301.50-3 (b) further requires written notification be given to the owner or person in possession of a newly quarantined area. This is the responsibility of the Federal and/or State regulatory personnel responsible for the PSB program in each of the affected States.

The States and counties affected under this action are:

- New York--Albany, Greene, Hamilton, Montgomery, Saratoga, Schenectady, Sullivan
- Ohio--Gallia
- Vermont--Washington
- Maryland--Montgomery
- Virginia--Clarke
- Indiana--Union

Prior to September 1, each State must confirm the establishment of a parallel quarantine or the entire State will be regulated as of that date. The confirmation should be made in writing to the respective Plant Protection and Quarantine State Plant Health Director.

If you wish more details on the Federal regulatory program, you may contact Staff Officer Weyman Fussell at (301) 734-8247. For information on the PSB survey and trapping program, please contact your respective State Plant Health Director.

We continue to appreciate the cooperative relationship with each State affected by PSB.

Detection of Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov in Colorado and Utah - 07/15/2003
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On May 13, 2003, the Agricultural Research Service, Systematic Entomology Lab confirmed that specimens of Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (S. schevyrewi), an exotic scolytid previously unknown in the United States, had been collected in Colorado and Utah. Between April 1 and May 9, 2003, S. schevyrewi was collected near two Colorado solid wood packing material recyclers (3 specimens from one site and 67 from another) at the Denver Zoo (two specimens) and from sites in Ogden, Logan, Clearfield, and Smithfield, Utah (13 specimens). Since early May, the APHIS/Forest Service Rapid Detection and Response Pilot Project team in coordination with State officials continue to discover S. schevyrewi in Colorado and Utah. To date, this species has not been reported from other States.

Hosts of S. schevyrewi include Elaeagnus spp. (Russian olive), Salix spp. (willow), Ulmus spp. (elm), Caragana spp. (peashrub), and Prunus spp. Research from Asia indicates that S. schevyrewi does not colonize and breed successfully in healthy elms; the beetle attacks trees that have been weakened and predisposed to attack by drought, severe defoliation or pathogen invasion. Scolytus schevyrewi may produce several generations per year. The potential for S. schevyrewi to vector exotic pathogens is currently unknown and is a possible concern. The known distribution of S. schevyrewi outside the United States is Russia and Mongolia and central, northwestern, northern, northeastern and eastern China and Korea.

The New Pest Advisory Group (NPAG) held a teleconference May 21, 2003, regarding S. schevyrewi and to collect information from subject-matter experts. Topics discussed included potential economic and environmental impacts on urban, rural, and forest trees; the need and logistics for delimiting/detection survey including the identification of high- risk areas (major rail yards in the Plains and Western States near host material); pathway and regulatory issues; and the need to investigate pathogenic fungal relationships with S. schevyrewi. Additional actions may be required when the range of distribution is established and exotic pathogen relationships are determined.

Lifting of Sapote fruit fly, Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), Quarantine in Texas - 07/01/2003
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The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the Texas Department of Agriculture (TDA) detected Sapote fruit flies in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas in January 2003. In February, TDA and APHIS implemented a quarantine to prevent the spread of this pest into citrus producing areas of Texas and other citrus producing states. The quarantine facilitated the eradication of the Sapote fruit fly and restricted the movement of grapefruit, oranges, mangos, peaches, apples, pears, sapotes, and other varieties of fruit.

On June 16, 2003, three life cycles of the Sapote fruit fly were completed without additional fly detections. Under existing APHIS guidelines, this eradication was declared complete. APHIS PPQ has advised TDA and industry and lifted all restrictions and regulatory requirements implemented during the eradication program.

On June 17, 2003, Agriculture Commissioner Combs announced the official eradication of Sapote fruit fly from Texas and lifted its quarantine in southern Hidalgo County. By lifting the quarantine, fruits, berries and citrus nursery plants can be shipped without restriction and fruit offered for sale does not need to be covered.

For more information on the Sapote fruit fly see the following:

Sapote fruit fly, Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), quarantine in Texas- 02/27/2003

PAS news story 05/17/01

http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/fruit/tropical/sapote_fruit_fly.htm

Sudden Oak Death (SOD), Phytophthora ramorum, First Detection in Washington State - 06/12/2003
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On June 5, 2003, the Washington State Department of Agriculture announced confirmation of the presence of Sudden Oak Death (SOD), Phytophthora ramorum, in four rhododendrons at a nursery in south King's County, Washington. This detection was made as a result of trace forwards from plants shipped from an affiliated nursery previously detected with the disease in Oregon.

This is the first detection of SOD in Washington State. In addition to this nursery, 12 nurseries have been reported surveyed with negative results, though this data is not yet in the National Agricultural Pest Information System database. More nurseries are scheduled to be surveyed. In our nationwide survey, over 1,000 samples have been taken with only one positive find in Oregon. In the affected Washington State nursery, 261 plant samples were taken, four tested positive, and the result was confirmed by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS).

Additional traces are being conducted and, where indicated, plants and premises are being inspected and tested.

In response to the Washington State find, we have issued an Emergency Action Order requiring the nursery to:
Hold all SOD susceptible plants until inspected (underway).
Destroy all rhododendrons in the same lot.
Destroy all susceptible plants within two meters of the susceptible plants.
Hold all susceptible plants located within ten meters for 90 days, with regular inspection. If no signs of disease are found, they will be released for sale.

APHIS is currently regulating 12 California counties and one county in Oregon. A national nursery survey coordinated by APHIS is continuing.

For more information on this pathogen visit: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/ispm/sod/

Golden Nematode Globodera rostochiensis, Detection in Fremont, New York - 06/12/2003
Vedpal S. Malik
Invasive Species and Pest Management staff
Vedpal.s.malik@aphis.usda.gov
(301) 734-8247
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The Golden nematode (GN), Globodera rostochiensis, has been detected in a 30-acre field in the Fremont Township of Steuben County, New York. This is the first time since 1986 that GN has been found outside the area quarantined for this nematode. This field had been systematically surveyed nine times since 1980. During the fall of 2002, survey of this field yielded four cysts in one soil sample. In a confirmation survey conducted on April 16, 2003, 51 cysts were recovered of which 43 were viable. The eggs and juvenile nematodes have been supplied to Cornell University for race biotyping.

Designated as I-11-D-5, this field has been operated by the same grower for nearly 50 years. The nearest GN quarantined area is approximately 10 miles west in Arkport, Steuben County, New York. The field has been rotated with potatoes and non-host crops and is presently planted with oats. GN susceptible potato varieties were planted in this field for 6 of the past 12 years. All production fields operated by this grower and in this township continue to be intensely surveyed for GN. All fields used for potato production in the surrounding town of Fremont as well as the entire county of Steuben have been surveyed for GN repeatedly over the past 25+ years. All fields outside the quarantined area have been surveyed and found negative for GN with this one exception. The grower does not produce potato seed but produces potatoes for potato chip manufacturers only. Hence, the risk of spread of GN by this grower now or in the past should not be cause for concern.

APHIS is evaluating all information before amending CFR 301.85-2a to include this positive field in Fremont Township of Steuben County, New York, as an infested area.

GN was first discovered in the United States in 1941 when it was found to be responsible for serious crop damage in a potato field on Long Island, New York. Because of an effective State-Federal quarantine which has been in existence for over 50 years, GN remains confined to portions of nine counties within the State of New York.

For more information about the Golden Nematode, see the following:
http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/ispm/nematode/
http://www.ceris.purdue.edu/napis/pests/gn/



Daylily Rust, Puccinia hemerocallidis - 05/27/2003
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Daylily rust, Puccinia hemerocallidis, was initially detected in the southeastern United States (AL, FL, GA, SC) in August 2000. As of January 2003, daylily rust was detected in 24 states (AL, AR, CA, CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, IN, LA, MD, MI, MN, MS, NJ, NC, OH, OR, PA, SC, TN, VA, and WI)*.

Several "New Pest Advisory Group" (NPAG) conference calls were convened, involving Federal, State and university representatives. The following points were noted:

- Most of the foliage that may exhibit symptoms of infection is removed from the daylily tubers before shipment to the US, making it difficult to detect the fungus at ports-of-entry.
- It has been difficult to prevent the natural spread of daylily rust due to the number of airborne spores and short incubation period.
- Interstate movement of many susceptible daylily species, Patrinia species, and Hosta species is common practice. Daylilies are popular among hobbyists, and their movement is generally not regulated.
- Few states have an effective quarantine in place. Many states that have daylily rust are not actively monitoring or applying mandatory control measures.
- There appear to be reasonably effective control measures (i.e., roguing and fungicides) used by producers.

After reviewing all available information, we have determined that daylily rust is established and widespread in the US. A Federal quarantine is not a viable strategy to prevent further spread of the disease. Therefore, daylilies will not be prohibited from entering the US when daylily rust is detected at ports of entry, nor will a domestic quarantine be promulgated.

*July 3, 2003 UPDATE: It was incorrectly reported on 05/27/03 that daylily rust had been detected in Colorado. As of this date, daylily rust, Puccinia hemerocallidis, has not been detected in Colorado.

Detections of Live Anastrepha sp. larvae in Manzano (Rocoto) peppers - 05/05/2003
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Multiple finds of live Anastrepha sp. larvae have been detected in Manzano (Rocoto) peppers (Capsicum pubescens c.v. Rocoto) on the Texas/Mexican border from shipments from Mexico and in several food stores in Georgia, Illinois, New Jersey, and New York. Effective May 1, 2003, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) suspended imports of Manzano (Rocoto) peppers from Mexico. At this time, Manzano (Rocoto) peppers from Mexico are not allowed entry into the United States. Other types of peppers from Mexico will be inspected and cut at a higher rate.

- In peppers destined to AZ, CA, FL, LA, and TX -- 4% of the boxes will be inspected; two fruit per box will be cut; the floors of the boxes and bottoms of the trucks will be looked at intensely for pupae.

- If destined to other locations -- 2% of the boxes will be inspected; two fruit per box will be cut; the floors of the boxes and bottoms of the trucks will be looked at intensely for pupae.

APHIS in collaboration with State and local agricultural officials, produce wholesalers and retailers has taken restrictive measures to minimize the risks from products currently in the United States, including eliminating this fruit from the States of Arizona, California, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Fruit already in these States is being removed from store shelves and distribution centers and is being destroyed. Re-export of these peppers out of these States to other States is disallowed. In addition, distribution centers outside of the 5 citrus producing States are prohibited from distributing Manzano (Rocoto) peppers to Arizona, California, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas.

Status of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 in U.S. Greenhouses
- 03/17/2003
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The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) has confirmed detections of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, on geraniums with wilt symptoms in 27 commercial greenhouses in 13 States (Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, New Hampshire, Tennessee, Virginia and Wisconsin). All greenhouses received the infected propagative material from one particular facility located in Kenya. This is a bacterial pathogen that causes wilt in geraniums (Pelargonium), is highly destructive to potatoes, and infects numerous other solanaceous plants (e.g., tomatoes, tobacco, eggplant, and peppers).

PPQ placed over 800 US greenhouses under quarantine, using shipping records and traces forward to identify potentially infested plants. Shipments of regulated plants from the affected greenhouses have been suspended until PPQ ascertains that tests for the presence of the pathogen are negative. Samples are currently being taken from held suspect plants showing wilting symptoms and screened for the presence of Ralstonia solanacearum. Confirmation testing to the race 3 biovar 2 level is being done by the PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland. The Center has recruited additional assistance to assure samples are processed within four days, unless retesting is necessary.

Suspect greenhouses in which wilted geranium plants tested positive by PPQ for R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 have not been allowed to move plants until PPQ-approved procedures are used both to destroy plants and disinfect greenhouses. Plants including non-host plants, that are commingled or exposed to contaminated water in shipment or in the greenhouses, may be subject to destruction if there is reason to believe that contamination by R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 may have occurred. Over 630 of the over 800 initially held greenhouses remained on hold as of March 7.

APHIS has implemented a prohibition for all geranium nursery stock from Kenya effective February 14. APHIS is making every effort to implement its emergency response to ensure that U.S. potatoes and other solanaceous plants are safeguarded, and to minimize adverse impact on the geranium industry.

For more information about Ralstonia see the following:

http://flowers.hort.purdue.edu/web/USDARalstonia1.pdf
http://www.pestalert.org/notifications.cfm?region=United%20States
http://www.pestalert.org/Detail.CFM?recordID=70
http://www.pestalert.org/pestnewsdetails.cfm?newsID=26&keyword=Ralstonia
Florida Pest Alert

Sudden Oak Death (SOD), Phytophthora ramorum, Expansion of Listed Regulated Articles--California and Oregon
- 03/11/2003
Jonathan M. Jones
National Phytophthora ramorum Program Manager
USDA-APHIS-PPQ Invasive Species and Pest Management
4700 River Rd. Unit 134 Suite 4C33
Riverdale, MD 20737
Tel: 301-734-8247 Fax: 301-734-8584
email: jonathan.m.jones@aphis.usda.gov
Top
On February 14, 2002, APHIS published an interim rule (7 CFR 301.92) in the Federal Register for SOD. This rule regulates the artificial spread of this disease causing organism from moving out of the counties where the disease is established. We have now learned that certain plant parts of additional hosts require regulating in order to control the artificial spread of this disease.

Researchers in Europe have identified three new species as being associated with SOD. All of these were found in a nursery or nursery setting. These new hosts are Andromeda (Pieris Formosa - Ericaceae), Laurustinus (Viburnum tinus - Caprifoliaceae), and Camellia (Camellia japonica - Theaceae).

Therefore, effective immediately the following are restricted articles under 7 CFR 301.92:
Andromeda, plants and all parts except clean seeds
Laurustinus, plants and stems
Camellia, leaves

This action is authorized by the Plant Protection Act of June 20, 2002, Section 412(a), which authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to prohibit or restrict the movement in interstate commerce of any plant, plant part, or article if the Secretary determines the prohibition or restriction is necessary to prevent the dissemination of a plant pest within the United States. This action is also authorized by 7 CFR 301.92-2(b)(2) which designates as restricted articles any other product or article that an inspector determines to present a risk of spreading SOD. This designation requires the inspector to notify the person in possession of the product or article that it is a restricted article.

This action will be reflected by regulatory changes that will be published in the Federal Register for public comment in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Procedures Act.

New Detections of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 in U.S. Greenhouses - 02/27/2003
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APHIS has confirmed Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 in wilted geraniums in two additional commercial greenhouses in Michigan. This brings the total number of greenhouses found with geraniums infected with this bacterial pathogen to six, including four in Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsin. All greenhouses received infected propagative material from the Goldsmith Plants, Inc. facilities located in Kenya.

It appears that several hundred customers of Goldsmiths may be impacted, and PPQ is currently conducting trace forward activities to determine the location of the shipments in the United States. APHIS has implemented a prohibition for all geranium nursery stock from Kenya effective February 14. APHIS has sent officials to investigate the source production site for the infection. Shipments of regulated plants from the affected greenhouses are being suspended until PPQ ascertains that tests for the presence of the pathogen are negative. Contaminated U.S. greenhouses will not be allowed to move plants until PPQ-approved procedures are used both to destroy plants and disinfect greenhouses.

The Ralstonia detections and subsequent APHIS action coincide with key shipping times for geraniums for both Kenyan interests and the domestic greenhouse industry. APHIS is making every effort to implement its emergency response to ensure that U.S. potatoes and other solanaceous plants are safeguarded, and to minimize adverse impact on the geranium industry.

R. solanacearum race 3 biovar causes wilt in geraniums (Pelargonium), is highly destructive to potatoes, and infects numerous other solanaceous plants (e.g. tomatoes, eggplant, and chile peppers). The pathogen is cited on USDA's Agricultural Bioterrorism Act of 2002 Select Agents and Toxins list because it is a serious pathogen of potatoes that is not present in the United States. PPQ has no information that indicates the introduction of this pathogen was deliberate but instead resulted from unintentional contamination in the routine importation of geraniums.

For more information about Ralstonia see the following:
http://www.pestalert.org/notifications.cfm?region=United%20States
http://www.pestalert.org/Detail.CFM?recordID=70
http://www.pestalert.org/pestnewsdetails.cfm?newsID=26&keyword=Ralstonia

 Sapote fruit fly, Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), quarantine in Texas - 02/27/2003
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The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the Texas Department of Agriculture (TDA) detected Sapote fruit flies in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas. On January 6, 2003, an adult of the Sapote fruit fly was detected in a McPhail trap located south of McAllen in Hidalgo County in a grapefruit orchard. Four additional flies were collected at the following locations: January 8, backyard grapefruit tree southeast of McAllen; January 9, grapefruit orchard near Donna, Hidalgo County; January 13, grapefruit orchard near Donna; and February 7, backyard sour orange tree south of McAllen. The quarantine trigger was met twice because two flies each at Donna and McAllen were less than 3 miles apart.

On February 24, 2003, TDA adopted new regulatory sections concerning the Sapote fruit fly quarantine. The new sections are adopted on an emergency basis to prevent the spread of the Sapote fruit fly and facilitate its eradication. The new sections require application of treatments to achieve eradication and prescribe specific restrictions on the handling and movement of quarantined articles.

The quarantine area of approximately 225 square miles and 5000 acres of commercial citrus encompass the McAllen, Pharr, Mission, and Weslaco areas of the LRGV.

Treatment options within the quarantine area consist of Malathion or Spinosad bait spray at 10-12 day intervals 30 days prior to harvest, methyl bromide fumigation post harvest, or processing into juice.

The infestation represents a threat to the agriculture and environment of Texas and other U.S. mainland States. APHIS is cooperating with TDA in delimiting survey, treatment applications, regulation, and development of a program specific Sapote Fruit Fly Cooperative Program Environmental Assessment.

For more information on the sapote fruit fly see the following:
PAS news story 05/17/01
http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/fruit/tropical/sapote_fruit_fly.htm

Detections of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 in U.S. Greenhouses - 02/18/2003
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APHIS has confirmation of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 in geraniums in four commercial greenhouses in Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsin. All greenhouses received infected propagative material from the Goldsmith Plants, Inc. facilities located in Kenya. This is a bacterial pathogen that causes wilt in geraniums (Pelargonium), is highly destructive to potatoes, and infects numerous other solanaceous plants (e.g. tomatoes, eggplant, and chile peppers). Confirmation testing was done by the Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) Center for Plant Health Science and Technology laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland.

Goldsmith voluntarily quarantined two greenhouses in Kenya in January 2003 and suspended shipments of geranium cuttings from those greenhouses for the remainder of this season. They have also alerted customers that may have received cuttings infected with Ralstonia. It appears that several hundred customers may be impacted, and PPQ is currently conducting trace forward activities to determine the location of the shipments in the United States. APHIS has implemented a prohibition for all geranium nursery stock from Kenya effective February 14. APHIS has sent officials to investigate the source production site for the infection.

R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 is cited on USDA's Agricultural Bioterrorism Act of 2002 Select Agents and Toxins list because it is a serious pathogen of potatoes that is not present in the United States. PPQ has no information that indicates the introduction of this pathogen was deliberate but instead resulted from unintentional contamination in the routine importation of geraniums.

Shipments from the affected greenhouses will be suspended until PPQ ascertains that tests for the presence of the pathogen are negative. Contaminated U.S. greenhouses will not be allowed to move plants until PPQ-approved procedures are used both to destroy plants and decontaminate greenhouses. PPQ is in the process of evaluating protocols to screen geraniums for R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, so more information will be forthcoming on this issue.

The Ralstonia detections and subsequent APHIS action will coincide with key shipping times for geraniums for both Kenyan interests and the domestic greenhouse industry. APHIS will make every effort to implement its emergency response as soon as technically feasible to ensure that U.S. potatoes and other solanaceous plants are safeguarded, and to minimize adverse impact on the geranium industry.

For more information about Ralstonia see the following:
http://www.pestalert.org/Detail.CFM?recordID=70
http://www.pestalert.org/pestnewsdetails.cfm?newsID=26&keyword=Ralstonia

Phytophthora ramorum, Sudden Oak Death (SOD), Expansion of Listed Hosts–California and Oregon
- 01/31/2003
Jonathan M. Jones
National Phytophthora ramorum Program Manager
USDA-APHIS-PPQ Invasive Species and Pest Management
4700 River Rd. Unit 134 Suite 4C33
Riverdale, MD 20737
Tel: 301-734-8247 Fax: 301-734-8584
email: jonathan.m.jones@aphis.usda.gov
Top
On February 14, 2002, the USDA’s Animal Plant Health Inspection Service published an interim rule (7 CFR 301.92) in the Federal Register for Sudden Oak Death (SOD). This rule regulates the artificial spread of this disease-causing organism from moving out of the counties where the disease is established. It is now known that certain plant parts of an additional host require regulating in order to control the artificial spread of the disease.

University researchers regularly analyze suspect new hosts. In December 2002, a researcher announced the disease has been found associated with parts of a tree species growing in the currently regulated areas. This new host is canyon live oak (Quercus chrysolepis). The disease was reported limited to small branches and leaves.

Therefore, effective immediately the restricted articles are small branches (less than 1 inch in diameter) and leaves of canyon live oak. This action is authorized by the Plant Protection Act of June 20, 2002, Section 412(a), which authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to prohibit or restrict the movement in interstate commerce of any plant, plant part, or article if the Secretary determines the prohibition or restriction is necessary to prevent the dissemination of a plant pest within the United States. This action is also authorized by 7 CFR 301.92-2(b)(2) which designates as restricted articles any other product or article that an inspector determines to present a risk of spreading SOD. This designation is only valid when an inspector notifies the person in possession of the product or article that it is a restricted article.

This action will be reflected by regulatory changes that will be published in the Federal Register for public comment in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Procedures Act.

For more information on this pathogen visit: www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/ispm/sod

Mexican Fruit Fly (Anastrepha ludens) Quarantine in California - 11/14/2002
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The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) detected Mexican fruit flies in the Monterey Park area of Los Angeles County, California. As of October 24, 2002, one adult male, three sexually immature females, and one larvae have been detected.

The proposed quarantine area is limited to approximately 70 square miles of residential properties in or around Monterey Park and South San Gabriel. According to USDA and CDFA eradication protocols and procedures, the detection of one to four male or unmated female Mexican fruit flies will initiate a regulatory action of immediate hold orders on host fruit within a 200 meter radius of each detection. Under the quarantine trigger, the detection of five or more flies within a 3 mile radius and one life cycle, the detection of a mated female, or the detection of an immature form will trigger a quarantine on all host fruit within a 4.5 mile radius around each property on which Mexican fruit fly has been detected.

A Proclamation of Eradiction was issued by CDFA on October 16, 2002, with a treatment zone of approximately 14 square miles. Treatment consists of malathion and bait spray applied to all host plants on properties with a 200-meter radius of each find site with followup sterile Mexian fruit flies release over the entire eradication area.

The infestation represents a threat to the agriculture and environment of California and other U.S. mainland States. APHIS is cooperating with CDFA in delimiting surveys, treatment applications, regulation, environmental monitoring, and development of a program specific Mexican Fruit Fly Cooperative Program Environmental Assessment.

USDA ANNOUNCES POTATO MOP TOP VIRUS SURVEY - 10/09/2002
USDA, APHIS
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WASHINGTON, Oct. 9, 2002--The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service today announced plans to conduct a national survey for potato mop top virus, the results of which will represent every certified seed lot in the United States.

PMTV was confirmed for the first time in the United States in Maine in August 2002. In order to determine the distribution of PMTV in seed-producing states, APHIS will test approximately 3,000 tubers per state. The samples will include tubers from all certified seed lots grown in the 17 states that produce certified seed potatoes.

The results of the PMTV survey, which will be available in late 2002, will form the basis for any future regulatory action that may be taken by APHIS. If PMTV is determined to have limited distribution, APHIS will consider regulatory steps to prevent the interstate movement of infected seed.

PMTV, which does not affect humans, is a soilborne virus in the pomovirus group and is transmitted by the fungus that causes potato powdery scab disease. PMTV may cause discoloration or necrotic rings on lines in infected tubers. Above ground portions of infected plants may show various types of mottling and stunting. Losses of up to 20 percent have been reported in sensitive cultivars as a result of reduced tuber production and loss of tuber quality.

USDA REMOVES GYPSY MOTH RESTRICTIONS FROM BRITISH COLUMBIA - 09/20/2002
Fredrick A. Thomas
export operations officer
APHIS, PPQ, Phytosanitary Issues Management
4700 River Road, Unit 140
Riverdale, Md. 20737-1236
Telephone: 301-734-8367
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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service is amending its regulations by removing British Columbia, Canada, from the list of gypsy moth infested areas.

This action removes restrictions on the importation of articles that include trees and shrubs with or without roots, logs and pulpwood with bark attached, outdoor household articles and mobile homes and their associated equipment.

Surveys have indicated that those areas that had been considered infested have been free of gypsy moth for the past 2 years, allowing the importation of regulated articles from British Columbia, Canada. U.S. imports of live trees, plants and rough wood from this area exceed $200 million annually.

The gypsy moth is a destructive pest of forest and shade trees. In its caterpillar stage, the gypsy moth can feed on more than 500 different species of trees and shrubs. The pests can defoliate millions of acres in a season.

Notice of this final rule is scheduled for publication in the Sept. 23 Federal Register and become effective upon publication. APHIS documents published in the Federal Register and related information, including the names of organizations and individuals who have commented on APHIS dockets, are available on the Internet at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppd/rad/webrepor.html.

Phytophthora ramorum - 09/16/2002
Jonathan M. Jones
National Phytophthora ramorum Program Manager
USDA-APHIS-PPQ Invasive Species and Pest Management
4700 River Rd. Unit 134 Suite 4C33
Riverdale, MD 20737
Tel: 301-734-8247 Fax: 301-734-8584
email: jonathan.m.jones@aphis.usda.gov
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Researchers in California have announced that they have found coast redwood and Douglas fir trees infected with P. ramorum. These infections have been limited to leaves (needles), small branches and sprouts. We have placed these plant parts under regulation (7 CFR 301.92) and provided notification of this action via a SPRO letter.

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