Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771)
Citrus longhorned beetle discovered in two Washington State nurseries (USA)
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Name: Anoplophora chinensis (Forster, 1771)
Animalia: Arthropoda: Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
Common Names: Citrus longhorned beetle; black and white citrus longhorn; citrus root cerambycid; mulberry white spotted longicorn
In August 2001, three specimens of A. chinensis, a close relative to the serious pest Asian longhorned beetle (A. glabripennis), were discovered in a Tukwila, Washington nursery on Japanese Maple bonsai plants (Acer spp.) imported from Korea. Based on the number of exit holes on the bonsai trees, state authorities believe up to five adult beetles may have escaped in the Tukwila area. Later in the month, an additional specimen was found in a Lacey, WA nursery, possibly one of two originating from bonsai maples, although it is unlikely that the single escaped beetle presents a significant threat.
Issues of Concern:
Anoplophora chinensis is a polyphagous species, whose larvae bore into woody material of living trees and shrubs (including twigs, stems, and roots), which often results in the premature death of young trees. This species is therefore considered one of the most destructive cerambycid pests of forests and fruit orchards, especially citrus, in lowland areas of China, where economic losses can be substantial. This insect has the potential to become a significant pest of forests and other ecosystems.
Pathways: The larvae may move in felled timber and in nursery stock. In bonsai, they are more often found in field-collected plants than those grown under supervised nursery conditions.
Hosts: Primary hosts include Citrus aurantiifolia (lime), C. aurantium (sour orange), C. limonia (mandarin lime), C. maxima (pummelo), C. nobilis (tangerine), and C. sinensis (navel orange). Other hosts include Psidium guajava (guava), Carya illinoinensis (pecan), and species in the genera Acer, Morus, Populus, Platanus, Pyrus and Ficus.
Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Macau, Malaysia, Myanmar, Vietnam); United States (Hawaii).
After mating, adult females often oviposit in a slit in the bark of a living tree, several inches from the ground. They may also oviposit on exposed roots. Vertically scraped sections of bark may also indicate adult damage. During larval feeding, large amounts of frass are ejected through holes in the bark, and frass accumulation at the base of an attacked tree is usually conspicuous. Larvae may also be found in the roots or stems of dwarfed trees.
In November 2001, Washington State instituted a quarantine extending ½ miles around the area in Tukwila where the citrus longhorned beetles were captured in August. The quarantine prohibits moving the beetle or any plant material that may be infested with the beetle out of the quarantine area, including: untreated hardwood grown in the quarantine area, firewood from hardwood species, deadwood, stumps, tree trunks and similar portions of hardwood species, and tree prunings.
The entire shipment of 369 bonsai trees from Korea has been destroyed. These trees were being held in the eighth month of a two year disease quarantine, a mitigation measure required before sale to retail outlets or the public.
Duffy EAJ, 1968. A monograph of the immature stages of Oriental timber beetles (Cerambycidae). London: British Museum (Natural History).
Gressitt JL, 1951. Longicorn beetles of China. Longicornia, 2: 1-667 + 22 plates.
Linsley EG, 1963. The Cerambycidae of North America Part IV. Taxonomy and classification of the subfamily Cerambycinae, tribes Elaphidionini through Rhinotragini. University of California Publications in Entomology, 21: 1-165.
Washington Department of Agriculture Alert
2000 APHIS Alert