Multiple Longhorned Beetles
Novel pathways for exotic longhorned beetles are leading to increasing detections
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Name: Multiple Longhorned Beetles
Animalia: Arthropoda: Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
Common Names: Longhorned beetles
Living longhorned beetles are increasingly being intercepted on commodities not covered under solid wood packing materials (SWPM) regulations. The importation of untreated commodities such as bamboo garden stakes, Christmas trees, and baskets may develop into high risk pathways for pest introduction.
Issues of Concern:
The movement of pests associated with pallets and dunnage in SWPM is a recognized pathway for the introduction of exotic longhorned and bark beetles. This is of particular concern to forestry and the nursery industry, since some imported Cerambycid beetles have been documented attacking living trees in North America, eg. the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, in New York and Chicago, U.S.A.; the brown spruce longhorned beetle, Tetropium fuscum, in Nova Scotia, CAN; and the small Japanese cedar longhorned beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne, in North Carolina and Connecticut, U.S.A. (Maier and Lemmon 2000)
This posting is intended to address the concern that other, less recognized pathways exist for the introduction of such pests.
*Between January and September 2000, numerous U.S.A. interceptions of longhorned beetles were made in bamboo stakes sold or intended for garden and nursery use.
*In April 2000, a longhorned beetle Grammographus notabilis (Pascoe) was intercepted in Ohio, U.S.A. from a plastic-wrapped basket made in China. Evidence indicated additional pests had likely been present.
*In 1999, brown fir longhorned beetles, Callidiellum villosulum, and small Japanese cedar longhorned beetles, C. rufipenne, were discovered in or emerging from artificial Christmas trees from China. The center posts (trunks) of these artificial trees were made from untreated Japanese Cedar.
*In 1999, citrus longhorned beetles, Anoplophora chinenesis, were intercepted on crepe myrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.) bonsai in Georgia, and originated in China. In addition, a whitespotted longhorned beetle, A. malasiaca, was found in maple bonsai in Wisconsin (U.S.A.), specific Asian origin is unknown. In both cases, these bonsai were apparently field grown.
SWPM bearing fumigation certificates are occasionally found to contain living cerambycids as well, suggesting that mandated treatments may sometimes be insufficient for 100% control, or may be applied incorrectly in practice.
Maier, C.T. and C.R. Lemmon (2000) Discovery of the small Japanese cedar longhorned beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, in live arborvitae in Connecticut. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 102(3): 747-754.
Fact sheets for genus Chlorophorus